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Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 251-272; doi:10.3390/ph3010251
Review

Antihypertensive Peptides from Milk Proteins

*  and
Received: 23 December 2009; in revised form: 14 January 2010 / Accepted: 18 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antihypertensive Drugs)
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Abstract: Dietary proteins possess a wide range of nutritional and functional properties. They are used as a source of energy and amino acids, which are needed for growth and development. Many dietary proteins, especially milk proteins, contain physiologically active peptides encrypted in the protein sequence. These peptides may be released during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing and once liberated, cause different physiological functions. Milk-derived bioactive peptides are shown to have antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antioxidative and mineral-binding properties. During the fermentation of milk with certain lactobacilli, two interesting tripeptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro are released from casein to the final product. These lactotripeptides have attenuated the development of hypertension in several animal models and lowered blood pressure in clinical studies. They inhibit ACE in vitro at micromolar concentrations, protect endothelial function in vitro and reduce arterial stiffness in humans. Thus, milk as a traditional food product can after certain processing serve as a functional food and carry specific health-promoting effects, providing an option to control blood pressure.
Keywords: hypertension; casein; bioactive peptides; lactotripeptides; Ile-Pro-Pro hypertension; casein; bioactive peptides; lactotripeptides; Ile-Pro-Pro
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jäkälä, P.; Vapaatalo, H. Antihypertensive Peptides from Milk Proteins. Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3, 251-272.

AMA Style

Jäkälä P, Vapaatalo H. Antihypertensive Peptides from Milk Proteins. Pharmaceuticals. 2010; 3(1):251-272.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jäkälä, Pauliina; Vapaatalo, Heikki. 2010. "Antihypertensive Peptides from Milk Proteins." Pharmaceuticals 3, no. 1: 251-272.



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