Next Article in Journal
Monoclonal Antibodies for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Next Article in Special Issue
Home and Office Blood Pressure Control among Treated Hypertensive Patients in Japan: Findings from the Japan Home versus Office Blood Pressure Measurement Evaluation (J-HOME) Study
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Quercetin: A Treatment for Hypertension?—A Review of Efficacy and Mechanisms
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 251-272; doi:10.3390/ph3010251
Review

Antihypertensive Peptides from Milk Proteins

*  and
Received: 23 December 2009 / Revised: 14 January 2010 / Accepted: 18 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antihypertensive Drugs)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [211 KB, uploaded 19 January 2010]

Abstract

Dietary proteins possess a wide range of nutritional and functional properties. They are used as a source of energy and amino acids, which are needed for growth and development. Many dietary proteins, especially milk proteins, contain physiologically active peptides encrypted in the protein sequence. These peptides may be released during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing and once liberated, cause different physiological functions. Milk-derived bioactive peptides are shown to have antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antioxidative and mineral-binding properties. During the fermentation of milk with certain lactobacilli, two interesting tripeptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro are released from casein to the final product. These lactotripeptides have attenuated the development of hypertension in several animal models and lowered blood pressure in clinical studies. They inhibit ACE in vitro at micromolar concentrations, protect endothelial function in vitro and reduce arterial stiffness in humans. Thus, milk as a traditional food product can after certain processing serve as a functional food and carry specific health-promoting effects, providing an option to control blood pressure.
Keywords: hypertension; casein; bioactive peptides; lactotripeptides; Ile-Pro-Pro hypertension; casein; bioactive peptides; lactotripeptides; Ile-Pro-Pro
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Jäkälä, P.; Vapaatalo, H. Antihypertensive Peptides from Milk Proteins. Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3, 251-272.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Pharmaceuticals EISSN 1424-8247 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert