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Oxidative Stress Induced Mitochondrial Failure and Vascular Hypoperfusion as a Key Initiator for the Development of Alzheimer Disease
School of Health Science and Healthcare Administration, University of Atlanta, 6685 Peachtree Industrial Blvd., Atlanta, Georgia, 30360, USA
Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Javeriana University, Bogotà D.C., Colombia
Stress Relief and Memory Training Center, Brooklyn, New York, NY 11235, USA
Department of Biology, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249–1664, USA
Department of Cytology, Histology and Embryology, Azerbaijan Medical University, 25 Street Bakhikhanov, Baku AZ10 25, Azerbaijan
Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, WRB 5301, Cleveland, Ohio, 44106, USA
Department of Psychiatry, Wroclaw Medical University, 25 St. Kraszewskiego, Wroclaw, 50–229, Poland
Dirección de Investigación y desarrollo, Centro de Estudios de la Fotosíntesis Humana, S.C. López Velarde 108 y 109, Centro, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, 20000, México
Department of Mathematics, College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 November 2009; in revised form: 11 January 2010 / Accepted: 14 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
Abstract: Mitochondrial dysfunction may be a principal underlying event in aging, including age-associated brain degeneration. Mitochondria provide energy for basic metabolic processes. Their decay with age impairs cellular metabolism and leads to a decline of cellular function. Alzheimer disease (AD) and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) are two leading causes of age-related dementia. Increasing evidence strongly supports the theory that oxidative stress, largely due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), induces mitochondrial damage, which arises from chronic hypoperfusion and is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis that underlies both disease processes. Mitochondrial membrane potential, respiratory control ratios and cellular oxygen consumption decline with age and correlate with increased oxidant production. The sustained hypoperfusion and oxidative stress in brain tissues can stimulate the expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and brain endothelium probably increase the accumulation of oxidative stress products, which therefore contributes to blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and brain parenchymal cell damage. Determining the mechanisms behind these imbalances may provide crucial information in the development of new, more effective therapies for stroke and AD patients in the near future.
Keywords: oxidative stress; Alzheimer disease; antioxidants; hypometabolism; mitochondria; metabolism; neurodegeneration
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Aliev, G.; Palacios, H.H.; Gasimov, E.; Obrenovich, M.E.; Morales, L.; Leszek, J.; Bragin, V.; Solís Herrera, A.; Gokhman, D. Oxidative Stress Induced Mitochondrial Failure and Vascular Hypoperfusion as a Key Initiator for the Development of Alzheimer Disease. Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3, 158-187.
Aliev G, Palacios HH, Gasimov E, Obrenovich ME, Morales L, Leszek J, Bragin V, Solís Herrera A, Gokhman D. Oxidative Stress Induced Mitochondrial Failure and Vascular Hypoperfusion as a Key Initiator for the Development of Alzheimer Disease. Pharmaceuticals. 2010; 3(1):158-187.
Aliev, Gjumrakch; Palacios, Hector H.; Gasimov, Eldar; Obrenovich, Mark E.; Morales, Ludis; Leszek, Jerzy; Bragin, Valentin; Solís Herrera, Arturo; Gokhman, Dmitry. 2010. "Oxidative Stress Induced Mitochondrial Failure and Vascular Hypoperfusion as a Key Initiator for the Development of Alzheimer Disease." Pharmaceuticals 3, no. 1: 158-187.