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Pharmaceuticals, Volume 3, Issue 1 (January 2010), Pages 1-322

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Spironolactone Plus Full-Dose ACE Inhibition in Patients with Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy and Nephrotic Syndrome: Does It Really Work?
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 1-9; doi:10.3390/ph3010001
Received: 2 December 2009 / Revised: 29 December 2009 / Accepted: 31 December 2009 / Published: 5 January 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (86 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have studied the effects of add-on spironolactone treatment (100 mg/day) in 11 patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) and > 3 gm proteinuria/day despite angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy titrated to a systolic/diastolic blood pressure
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We have studied the effects of add-on spironolactone treatment (100 mg/day) in 11 patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) and > 3 gm proteinuria/day despite angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy titrated to a systolic/diastolic blood pressure < 120/80 mmHg. Blood pressure, 24-hour urinary protein excretion, and creatinine clearance were measured prior to, after two months of combined therapy, and after a 2-month withdrawal period of spironolactone. While systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly after spironolactone therapy, proteinuria did not improve. Serum potassium increased significantly as well, with three patients requiring resin-binding therapy. Thus, spironolactone seems to have no additional antiproteinuric effects over ACE inhibitor therapy in patients with IMN and nephrotic syndrome and carries the risk of significant hyperkalemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antihypertensive Drugs)
Open AccessArticle Role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in APP Hyperphosphorylation Induced by NMDA Stimulation in Cortical Neurons
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 42-58; doi:10.3390/ph3010042
Received: 23 October 2009 / Revised: 3 December 2009 / Accepted: 5 January 2010 / Published: 7 January 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The phosphorylation of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) at Thr668 plays a key role in APP metabolism that is highly relevant to AD. The c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) can all be responsible for this phosphorylation.
[...] Read more.
The phosphorylation of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) at Thr668 plays a key role in APP metabolism that is highly relevant to AD. The c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) can all be responsible for this phosphorylation. These kinases are activated by excitotoxic stimuli fundamental hallmarks of AD. The exposure of cortical neurons to a high dose of NMDA (100 μM) for 30’-45’ led to an increase of P-APP Thr668. During NMDA stimulation APP hyperphosphorylation has to be assigned to GSK-3β activity, since addition of L803-mts, a substrate competitive inhibitor of GSK-3β reduced APP phosphorylation induced by NMDA. On the contrary, inhibition of JNK and Cdk5 with D-JNKI1 and Roscovitine respectively did not prevent NMDA-induced P-APP increase. These data show a tight connection, in excitotoxic conditions, between APP metabolism and the GSK-3β signaling pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protein Kinase Inhibitors)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Functional Protein Transduction Domains Using the NEMO Binding Domain Peptide
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 110-124; doi:10.3390/ph3010110
Received: 24 October 2009 / Revised: 22 December 2009 / Accepted: 24 December 2009 / Published: 8 January 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1440 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Protein transduction domains (PTDs), both naturally occurring and synthetic, have been extensively utilized for intracellular delivery of biologically active molecules both in vitro and in vivo. However, most comparisons of transduction efficiency have been performed using fluorescent markers. To compare efficiency of
[...] Read more.
Protein transduction domains (PTDs), both naturally occurring and synthetic, have been extensively utilized for intracellular delivery of biologically active molecules both in vitro and in vivo. However, most comparisons of transduction efficiency have been performed using fluorescent markers. To compare efficiency of functional protein transduction, a peptide derived from IkB kinase ß (IKKß) that prevents formation of an active IKK complex was used as a biologically active cargo. This peptide, termed NEMO Binding Domain (NBD), is able to block activation of the transcriptional factor NF-κB by IKK, but not basal NF-κB activity. Our results demonstrate that Antp and Tat PTDs were most effective for delivery of NBD for inhibition of NF-kB activation compared to other PTD-NBD in both Hela and 293 cells, however, at higher concentrations (100 µM), the Antp-NBD as well as the FGF-NBD peptide caused significant cellular toxicity. In contrast to the cell culture results, delivery of NBD using 8K (octalysine) and 6R (six arginine) were the most effect in blocking inflammation following local, footpad delivery in a KLH-induced DTH murine model of inflammatory arthritis. These results demonstrate differences between PTDs for delivery of a functional cargo between cell types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell-penetrating Peptides 2012)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A New Baroreceptor Sensitivity-Restoring Ca-Channel Blocker Diminishes Age-Related Morning Blood Pressure Increase in Hypertensive Patients: Open-Label Monitoring of Azelnidipine Treatment for Hypertension in the Early Morning (At-HOME) Study
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 225-236; doi:10.3390/ph3010225
Received: 1 December 2009 / Revised: 28 December 2009 / Accepted: 5 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Morning blood pressure (BP) surge, which exhibits an age-related increase, is a risk factor for stroke in elderly hypertensive patients, independently of the 24-h BP level. We studied the effect of the new baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS)-restoring Ca-channel blocker (CCB) azelnidipine (AZ) on
[...] Read more.
Background: Morning blood pressure (BP) surge, which exhibits an age-related increase, is a risk factor for stroke in elderly hypertensive patients, independently of the 24-h BP level. We studied the effect of the new baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS)-restoring Ca-channel blocker (CCB) azelnidipine (AZ) on this age-related morning BP increase. Methods: We conducted a 16-week prospective study to clarify the effect of morning dosing of AZ on home BPs measured in the morning and in the evening in 2,546 hypertensive patients (mean age, 65.1 years; female, 53.6%). Results: At baseline, ME-Dif (morning systolic BP [SBP]–evening SBP) increased with age, independently of ME-Ave (average of the morning and evening SBPs). This age-related increase of ME-Dif was exaggerated by regular alcohol drinking and beta-blocker use. After AZ treatment (14.3 ± 3.6 mg/day), ME-AV and ME-Dif were significantly reduced independently of each other, with reductions of –18.1 ± 15.6 and –2.5 ± 13.2 mmHg, respectively (both p < 0.001). AZ treatment decreased age-related increase in ME-Dif particularly in patients who were regular consumers of alcohol and in beta-blocker users. Conclusions: The new BRS-restoring CCB AZ significantly reduced age-related increase in morning BP and had some potential benefit on cardiovascular protection in hypertension, particularly in elderly patients and/or consumers of alcohol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antihypertensive Drugs)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Hypersensitivity Reactions to Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: An Update
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 10-18; doi:10.3390/ph3010010
Received: 17 December 2009 / Accepted: 30 December 2009 / Published: 5 January 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
After beta lactam antibiotics, hypersensitivity reactions to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are the second cause of hypersensitivity to drugs. Acute manifestations affect the respiratory tract (aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease), the skin (urticaria and angioedema), or are generalized (anaphylaxis). Correct diagnosis and treatment in order
[...] Read more.
After beta lactam antibiotics, hypersensitivity reactions to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs are the second cause of hypersensitivity to drugs. Acute manifestations affect the respiratory tract (aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease), the skin (urticaria and angioedema), or are generalized (anaphylaxis). Correct diagnosis and treatment in order to prevent unnecessary morbidity and the potential risk of death from these severe reactions, and to provide proper medical advice on future drug use frequently requires the participation of allergology specialists familiar with these clinical conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs)
Open AccessReview The Timing of Antidepressant Effects: A Comparison of Diverse Pharmacological and Somatic Treatments
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 19-41; doi:10.3390/ph3010019
Received: 21 November 2009 / Revised: 17 December 2009 / Accepted: 29 December 2009 / Published: 6 January 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Currently available antidepressants used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD) unfortunately often take weeks to months to achieve their full effects, commonly resulting in considerable morbidity and increased risk for suicidal behavior. Our lack of understanding of the precise cellular underpinnings of this
[...] Read more.
Currently available antidepressants used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD) unfortunately often take weeks to months to achieve their full effects, commonly resulting in considerable morbidity and increased risk for suicidal behavior. Our lack of understanding of the precise cellular underpinnings of this illness and of the mechanism of action of existing effective pharmacological treatments is a large part of the reason that therapies with a more rapid onset of antidepressant action (ROAA) have not been developed. Other issues that need to be addressed include heterogeneous clinical concepts and statistical models to measure rapid antidepressant effects. This review describes the timing of onset of antidepressant effects for various therapies used to treat MDD. While several agents produce earlier improvement of depressive symptoms (defined as occurring within one week), the response rate associated with such agents can be quite variable. These agents include both currently available antidepressants as well as other pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Considerably fewer treatments are associated with ROAA, defined as occurring within several hours or one day. Treatment strategies for MDD whose sustained antidepressant effects manifest within hours or even a few days would have an enormous impact on public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antidepressants)
Open AccessReview A Novel Category of Anti-Hypertensive Drugs for Treating Salt-Sensitive Hypertension on the Basis of a New Development Concept
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 59-109; doi:10.3390/ph3010059
Received: 24 October 2009 / Revised: 24 December 2009 / Accepted: 6 January 2010 / Published: 7 January 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1857 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Terrestrial animals must conserve water and NaCl to survive dry environments. The kidney reabsorbs 95% of the sodium filtered from the glomeruli before sodium reaches the distal connecting tubules. Excess sodium intake requires the renal kallikrein-kinin system for additional excretion. Renal kallikrein is
[...] Read more.
Terrestrial animals must conserve water and NaCl to survive dry environments. The kidney reabsorbs 95% of the sodium filtered from the glomeruli before sodium reaches the distal connecting tubules. Excess sodium intake requires the renal kallikrein-kinin system for additional excretion. Renal kallikrein is secreted from the distal connecting tubule cells of the kidney, and its substrates, low molecular kininogen, from the principal cells of the cortical collecting ducts (CD). Formed kinins inhibit reabsorption of NaCl through bradykinin (BK)-B2 receptors, localized along the CD. Degradation pathway of BK by kinin-destroying enzymes in urine differs completely from that in plasma, so that ACE inhibitors are ineffective. Urinary BK is destroyed mainly by a carboxypeptidase-Y-like exopeptidase (CPY) and partly by a neutral endopeptidase (NEP). Inhibitors of CPY and NEP, ebelactone B and poststatin, respectively, were found. Renal kallikrein secretion is accelerated by potassium and ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel blockers, such as PNU-37883A. Ebelactone B prevents DOCA-salt hypertension in rats. Only high salt intake causes hypertension in animals deficient in BK-B2 receptors, tissue kallikrein, or kininogen. Hypertensive patients, and spontaneously hypertensive rats, excrete less kallikrein than normal subjects, irrespective of races, and become salt-sensitive. Ebelactone B, poststatin, and KATP channel blockers could become novel antihypertensive drugs by increase in urinary kinin levels. Roles of kinin in cardiovascular diseases were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antihypertensive Drugs)
Open AccessReview Approved and Off-Label Uses of Obesity Medications, and Potential New Pharmacologic Treatment Options
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 125-145; doi:10.3390/ph3010125
Received: 8 November 2009 / Revised: 7 January 2010 / Accepted: 11 January 2010 / Published: 12 January 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Available anti-obesity pharmacotherapy options remain very limited and development of more effective drugs has become a priority. The potential strategies to achieve weight loss are to reduce energy intake by stimulating anorexigenic signals or by blocking orexigenic signals, and to increase energy expenditure.
[...] Read more.
Available anti-obesity pharmacotherapy options remain very limited and development of more effective drugs has become a priority. The potential strategies to achieve weight loss are to reduce energy intake by stimulating anorexigenic signals or by blocking orexigenic signals, and to increase energy expenditure. This review will focus on approved obesity medications, as well as potential new pharmacologic treatment options. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-Obesity Drugs)
Open AccessReview Impact of Glycosylation on Effector Functions of Therapeutic IgG
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 146-157; doi:10.3390/ph3010146
Received: 15 December 2009 / Revised: 30 December 2009 / Accepted: 8 January 2010 / Published: 12 January 2010
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (1675 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Human IgG has only one conserved glycosylation site located in the Cγ2 domain of the Fc region that accounts for the presence of two sugar moieties per IgG. These IgG sugar cores play a critical role in a number of IgG effector functions.
[...] Read more.
Human IgG has only one conserved glycosylation site located in the Cγ2 domain of the Fc region that accounts for the presence of two sugar moieties per IgG. These IgG sugar cores play a critical role in a number of IgG effector functions. In the present review, we describe the main characteristics of IgG Fc glycosylation and some abnormalities of serum IgG glycosylation. We also discuss how glycosylation impacts on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and IVIg effector functions and how these molecules can be engineered. Several therapeutic antibodies have now been engineered to be no- or low-fucose antibodies and are currently tested in clinical trials. They exhibit an increased binding to activating FcγRIIIA and trigger a strong antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) as compared to their highly-fucosylated counterparts. They represent a new generation of therapeutic antibodies that are likely to show a better clinical efficacy in patients, notably in cancer patients where cytotoxic antibodies are needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibody)
Open AccessReview Oxidative Stress Induced Mitochondrial Failure and Vascular Hypoperfusion as a Key Initiator for the Development of Alzheimer Disease
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 158-187; doi:10.3390/ph3010158
Received: 28 November 2009 / Revised: 11 January 2010 / Accepted: 14 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (815 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mitochondrial dysfunction may be a principal underlying event in aging, including age-associated brain degeneration. Mitochondria provide energy for basic metabolic processes. Their decay with age impairs cellular metabolism and leads to a decline of cellular function. Alzheimer disease (AD) and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs)
[...] Read more.
Mitochondrial dysfunction may be a principal underlying event in aging, including age-associated brain degeneration. Mitochondria provide energy for basic metabolic processes. Their decay with age impairs cellular metabolism and leads to a decline of cellular function. Alzheimer disease (AD) and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) are two leading causes of age-related dementia. Increasing evidence strongly supports the theory that oxidative stress, largely due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), induces mitochondrial damage, which arises from chronic hypoperfusion and is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis that underlies both disease processes. Mitochondrial membrane potential, respiratory control ratios and cellular oxygen consumption decline with age and correlate with increased oxidant production. The sustained hypoperfusion and oxidative stress in brain tissues can stimulate the expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and brain endothelium probably increase the accumulation of oxidative stress products, which therefore contributes to blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and brain parenchymal cell damage. Determining the mechanisms behind these imbalances may provide crucial information in the development of new, more effective therapies for stroke and AD patients in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mitochondrial Drugs for Neurodegenerative Diseases)
Open AccessReview Effects of Adaptogens on the Central Nervous System and the Molecular Mechanisms Associated with Their Stress—Protective Activity
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 188-224; doi:10.3390/ph3010188
Received: 14 December 2009 / Revised: 11 January 2010 / Accepted: 16 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adaptogens were initially defined as substances that enhance the “state of nonspecific resistance” in stress, a physiological condition that is linked with various disorders of the neuroendocrine-immune system. Studies on animals and isolated neuronal cells have revealed that adaptogens exhibit neuroprotective, anti-fatigue, antidepressive,
[...] Read more.
Adaptogens were initially defined as substances that enhance the “state of nonspecific resistance” in stress, a physiological condition that is linked with various disorders of the neuroendocrine-immune system. Studies on animals and isolated neuronal cells have revealed that adaptogens exhibit neuroprotective, anti-fatigue, antidepressive, anxiolytic, nootropic and CNS stimulating activity. In addition, a number of clinical trials demonstrate that adaptogens exert an anti-fatigue effect that increases mental work capacity against a background of stress and fatigue, particularly in tolerance to mental exhaustion and enhanced attention. Indeed, recent pharmacological studies of a number of adaptogens have provided a rationale for these effects also at the molecular level. It was discovered that the stress—protective activity of adaptogens was associated with regulation of homeostasis via several mechanisms of action, which was linked with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the regulation of key mediators of stress response, such as molecular chaperons (e.g., HSP70), stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1 (JNK1), Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor DAF-16, cortisol and nitric oxide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals with actions on the Central Nervous System)
Open AccessReview Quercetin: A Treatment for Hypertension?—A Review of Efficacy and Mechanisms
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 237-250; doi:10.3390/ph3010237
Received: 8 December 2009 / Revised: 12 January 2010 / Accepted: 14 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (108 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quercetin is a polyphenolic flavonoid. Common sources in the diet are apples, onions, berries, and red wine. Epidemiological studies have found an inverse relationship between dietary quercetin intake and cardiovascular disease. This has led to in vitro, in vivo, and clinical
[...] Read more.
Quercetin is a polyphenolic flavonoid. Common sources in the diet are apples, onions, berries, and red wine. Epidemiological studies have found an inverse relationship between dietary quercetin intake and cardiovascular disease. This has led to in vitro, in vivo, and clinical research to determine the mechanism by which quercetin exerts cardioprotective effects. Recent studies have found a reduction in blood pressure when hypertensive (>140 mm Hg systolic and >90 mm Hg diastolic) animals and humans are supplemented with quercetin. Proposed mechanisms for the antihypertensive effect of quercetin include decreased oxidative stress, inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme activity, improved endothelial function, direct action on the vascular smooth muscle, and/or modulation in cell signaling and gene expression. Although in vitro and in vivo evidence exists to support and refute each possibility, it is likely that quercetin influences multiple targets via a combination of known and as yet undiscovered mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to examine the mechanisms whereby quercetin might reduce blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antihypertensive Drugs)
Open AccessReview Antihypertensive Peptides from Milk Proteins
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 251-272; doi:10.3390/ph3010251
Received: 23 December 2009 / Revised: 14 January 2010 / Accepted: 18 January 2010 / Published: 19 January 2010
Cited by 53 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary proteins possess a wide range of nutritional and functional properties. They are used as a source of energy and amino acids, which are needed for growth and development. Many dietary proteins, especially milk proteins, contain physiologically active peptides encrypted in the protein
[...] Read more.
Dietary proteins possess a wide range of nutritional and functional properties. They are used as a source of energy and amino acids, which are needed for growth and development. Many dietary proteins, especially milk proteins, contain physiologically active peptides encrypted in the protein sequence. These peptides may be released during gastrointestinal digestion or food processing and once liberated, cause different physiological functions. Milk-derived bioactive peptides are shown to have antihypertensive, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antioxidative and mineral-binding properties. During the fermentation of milk with certain lactobacilli, two interesting tripeptides Ile-Pro-Pro and Val-Pro-Pro are released from casein to the final product. These lactotripeptides have attenuated the development of hypertension in several animal models and lowered blood pressure in clinical studies. They inhibit ACE in vitro at micromolar concentrations, protect endothelial function in vitro and reduce arterial stiffness in humans. Thus, milk as a traditional food product can after certain processing serve as a functional food and carry specific health-promoting effects, providing an option to control blood pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antihypertensive Drugs)
Open AccessReview Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors as Antidepressants
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 273-299; doi:10.3390/ph3010273
Received: 10 November 2009 / Revised: 7 January 2010 / Accepted: 19 January 2010 / Published: 20 January 2010
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (251 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Affective and anxiety disorders are widely distributed disorders with severe social and economic effects. Evidence is emphatic that effective treatment helps to restore function and quality of life. Due to the action of most modern antidepressant drugs, serotonergic mechanisms have traditionally been suggested
[...] Read more.
Affective and anxiety disorders are widely distributed disorders with severe social and economic effects. Evidence is emphatic that effective treatment helps to restore function and quality of life. Due to the action of most modern antidepressant drugs, serotonergic mechanisms have traditionally been suggested to play major roles in the pathophysiology of mood and stress-related disorders. However, a few clinical and several pre-clinical studies, strongly suggest involvement of the nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway in these disorders. Moreover, several of the conventional neurotransmitters, including serotonin, glutamate and GABA, are intimately regulated by NO, and distinct classes of antidepressants have been found to modulate the hippocampal NO level in vivo. The NO system is therefore a potential target for antidepressant and anxiolytic drug action in acute therapy as well as in prophylaxis. This paper reviews the effect of drugs modulating NO synthesis in anxiety and depression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antidepressants)
Open AccessReview Monoclonal Antibodies for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(1), 300-322; doi:10.3390/ph3010300
Received: 3 December 2009 / Revised: 12 January 2010 / Accepted: 15 January 2010 / Published: 20 January 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (296 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A number of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are now under investigation in clinical trials to assess their potential role in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The most frequently used mAb is rituximab, which is directed against CD20, a membrane protein expressed on B lymphocytes. Uncontrolled
[...] Read more.
A number of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are now under investigation in clinical trials to assess their potential role in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). The most frequently used mAb is rituximab, which is directed against CD20, a membrane protein expressed on B lymphocytes. Uncontrolled trials reported an improvement of SLE activity in non-renal patients and other studies even reported an improvement of severe lupus nephritis unresponsive to conventional treatments. However two randomized trials failed to show the superiority of rituximab over conventional treatment in non renal SLE and in lupus nephritis. Preliminary trials reported promising results with epratuzumab, a humanized mAb directed against CD22, and with belimumab, a human mAb that specifically recognizes and inhibits the biological activity of BLyS a cytokine of the tumornecrosis-factor (TNF) ligand superfamily. Other clinical trials with mAb directed against TNF-alpha, interleukin-10 (Il-10), Il-6, CD154, CD40 ligand, IL-18 or complement component C5 are under way. At present, however, in spite of good results reported by some studies, no firm conclusion on the risk-benefit profile of these mAbs in patients with SLE can be drawn from the available studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibody)

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