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Pharmaceuticals 2009, 2(3), 236-249; doi:10.3390/ph2030236
Article

Real Time Imaging of Biomarkers in the Parkinson's Brain Using Mini-Implantable Biosensors. II. Pharmaceutical Therapy with Bromocriptine

1,2,3,*  and 3
1 Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, Sophie Davis Sch. Biomed. Edu., CCNY, New York, NY 10031, USA 2 Departments of Biology, Psychology, CUNY Grad. Sch., New York, NY 10031, USA 3 Department of Neurology, NYU Sch. Med., Langone Med. Ctr., NYU Langone Comprehensive Epilepsy Ctr., New York, NY 10016, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 October 2009 / Revised: 12 December 2009 / Accepted: 16 December 2009 / Published: 22 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers)
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Abstract

We used Neuromolecular Imaging (NMI) and trademarked BRODERICK PROBE® mini-implantable biosensors, to selectively and separately detect neurotransmitters in vivo, on line, within seconds in the dorsal striatal brain of the Parkinson’s Disease (PD) animal model. We directly compared our results derived from PD to the normal striatal brain of the non-Parkinson’s Disease (non-PD) animal. This advanced biotechnology enabled the imaging of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), homovanillic acid (HVA) a metabolite of DA, L-tryptophan (L-TP) a precursor to 5-HT and peptides, dynorphin A 1-17 (Dyn A) and somatostatin (somatostatin releasing inhibitory factor) (SRIF). Each neurotransmitter and neurochemical was imaged at a signature electroactive oxidation/half-wave potential in dorsal striatum of the PD as compared with the non-PD animal. Both endogenous and bromocriptine-treated neurochemical profiles in PD and non-PD were imaged using the same experimental paradigm and detection sensitivities. Results showed that we have found significant neurotransmitter peptide biomarkers in the dorsal striatal brain of endogenous and bromocriptine-treated PD animals. The peptide biomarkers were not imaged in dorsal striatal brain of non-PD animals, either endogenously or bromocriptine-treated. These findings provide new pharmacotherapeutic strategies for PD patients. Thus, our findings are highly applicable to the clinical treatment of PD.
Keywords: biomarkers; biosensors; Parkinson’s disease; neuromolecular imaging; electrochemistry; neurotransmitters; monoamines; dopamine; serotonin; peptides; dynorphin A; somatostatin; basal ganglia; brain; neurons; dorsal striatum; movement disorders; substantia nigra; nigrostriatal pathways biomarkers; biosensors; Parkinson’s disease; neuromolecular imaging; electrochemistry; neurotransmitters; monoamines; dopamine; serotonin; peptides; dynorphin A; somatostatin; basal ganglia; brain; neurons; dorsal striatum; movement disorders; substantia nigra; nigrostriatal pathways
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Broderick, P.A.; Kolodny, E.H. Real Time Imaging of Biomarkers in the Parkinson's Brain Using Mini-Implantable Biosensors. II. Pharmaceutical Therapy with Bromocriptine. Pharmaceuticals 2009, 2, 236-249.

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