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Sensors 2009, 9(9), 6626-6651; doi:10.3390/s90906626
Article

Energy Balanced Strategies for Maximizing the Lifetime of Sparsely Deployed Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

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Received: 9 June 2009; in revised form: 9 August 2009 / Accepted: 10 August 2009 / Published: 24 August 2009
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Abstract: Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWA-SNs) are envisioned to perform monitoring tasks over the large portion of the world covered by oceans. Due to economics and the large area of the ocean, UWA-SNs are mainly sparsely deployed networks nowadays. The limited battery resources is a big challenge for the deployment of such long-term sensor networks. Unbalanced battery energy consumption will lead to early energy depletion of nodes, which partitions the whole networks and impairs the integrity of the monitoring datasets or even results in the collapse of the entire networks. On the contrary, balanced energy dissipation of nodes can prolong the lifetime of such networks. In this paper, we focus on the energy balance dissipation problem of two types of sparsely deployed UWA-SNs: underwater moored monitoring systems and sparsely deployed two-dimensional UWA-SNs. We first analyze the reasons of unbalanced energy consumption in such networks, then we propose two energy balanced strategies to maximize the lifetime of networks both in shallow and deep water. Finally, we evaluate our methods by simulations and the results show that the two strategies can achieve balanced energy consumption per node while at the same time prolong the networks lifetime.
Keywords: acoustic communications; energy efficiency; underwater acoustic sensor networks; data propagation; energy balancing acoustic communications; energy efficiency; underwater acoustic sensor networks; data propagation; energy balancing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Luo, H.; Guo, Z.; Wu, K.; Hong, F.; Feng, Y. Energy Balanced Strategies for Maximizing the Lifetime of Sparsely Deployed Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. Sensors 2009, 9, 6626-6651.

AMA Style

Luo H, Guo Z, Wu K, Hong F, Feng Y. Energy Balanced Strategies for Maximizing the Lifetime of Sparsely Deployed Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks. Sensors. 2009; 9(9):6626-6651.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Luo, Hanjiang; Guo, Zhongwen; Wu, Kaishun; Hong, Feng; Feng, Yuan. 2009. "Energy Balanced Strategies for Maximizing the Lifetime of Sparsely Deployed Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks." Sensors 9, no. 9: 6626-6651.



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