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Sensors 2008, 8(5), 2913-2931; doi:10.3390/s8052913

Modeling Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Optimum Tilt Angles for Solar Collectors in Turkey

Department of Agricultural Machinery, Akdeniz University, Faculty of Agriculture, 07070, Antalya, Turkey
Department of Environmental Engineering, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, 14280, Bolu, Turkey
Department of Agricultural Machinery, Suleyman Demirel University, Faculty of Agriculture, 32260, Cunur, Isparta, Turkey
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 February 2008 / Accepted: 23 April 2008 / Published: 6 May 2008
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Quantifying spatial and temporal variations in optimal tilt angle of a solar collector relative to a horizontal position assists in maximizing its performance for energy collection depending on changes in time and space. In this study, optimal tilt angles were quantified for solar collectors based on the monthly global and diffuse solar radiation on a horizontal surface across Turkey. The dataset of monthly average daily global solar radiation was obtained from 158 places, and monthly diffuse radiation data were estimated using an empirical model in the related literature. Our results showed that high tilt angles during the autumn (September to November) and winter (December to February) and low tilt angles during the summer (March to August) enabled the solar collector surface to absorb the maximum amount of solar radiation. Monthly optimum tilt angles were estimated devising a sinusoidal function of latitude and day of the year, and their validation resulted in a high R2 value of 98.8%, with root mean square error (RMSE) of 2.06o.
Keywords: Solar radiation; Solar collector; Spatio-temporal modeling; Optimum tilt angle. Solar radiation; Solar collector; Spatio-temporal modeling; Optimum tilt angle.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Ertekin, C.; Evrendilek, F.; Kulcu, R. Modeling Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Optimum Tilt Angles for Solar Collectors in Turkey. Sensors 2008, 8, 2913-2931.

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