Sensors 2006, 6(12), 1837-1850; doi:10.3390/s6121837
Article

Pulsed Amperometry for Anti-fouling of Boron-doped Diamond in Electroanalysis of β-Agonists: Application to Flow Injection for Pharmaceutical Analysis

1, 1, 1, 1, 3, 1, 5, 6, 7, 7 and 1,* email
Received: 1 January 2006; Accepted: 14 January 2006 / Published: 26 January 2006
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors in Flow Analysis)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This work presents the construction and application of boron-doped diamond(BDD) thin film electrode as sensor for the determination of three β-agonists, viz.salbutamol, terbutaline and clenbuterol. Although well-known as a chemically inertmaterial, BDD film however shows fouling in detection of these compounds using fixedpotentialmode amperometry. A suitable waveform for pulsed amperometric detection(PAD) was developed and used to determine the agonist compounds. It was seen that thedeveloped PAD significantly refreshed the BDD surface for long-term detection in flowinjection analysis. Linear working ranges were 0.5-100 μM, 1.0-100 μM and 0.5-50 μM forsalbutamol, terbutaline and clenbuterol, respectively. The developed PAD-BDD system wasapplied to successfully determine salbutamol and terbutaline in commercial pharmaceuticalproducts. The methods were validated with a capillary electrophoresis method.
Keywords: boron-doped diamond; pulsed amperometry; β-agonists; flow injection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Karuwan, C.; Mantim, T.; Chaisuwan, P.; Wilairat, P.; Grudpan, K.; Jittangprasert, P.; Einaga, Y.; Chailapakul, O.; Suntornsuk, L.; Anurukvorakun, O.; Nacapricha, D. Pulsed Amperometry for Anti-fouling of Boron-doped Diamond in Electroanalysis of β-Agonists: Application to Flow Injection for Pharmaceutical Analysis. Sensors 2006, 6, 1837-1850.

AMA Style

Karuwan C, Mantim T, Chaisuwan P, Wilairat P, Grudpan K, Jittangprasert P, Einaga Y, Chailapakul O, Suntornsuk L, Anurukvorakun O, Nacapricha D. Pulsed Amperometry for Anti-fouling of Boron-doped Diamond in Electroanalysis of β-Agonists: Application to Flow Injection for Pharmaceutical Analysis. Sensors. 2006; 6(12):1837-1850.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Karuwan, Chanpen; Mantim, Thitirat; Chaisuwan, Patcharin; Wilairat, Prapin; Grudpan, Kate; Jittangprasert, Piyada; Einaga, Yasuaki; Chailapakul, Orawon; Suntornsuk, Leena; Anurukvorakun, Oraphan; Nacapricha, Duangjai. 2006. "Pulsed Amperometry for Anti-fouling of Boron-doped Diamond in Electroanalysis of β-Agonists: Application to Flow Injection for Pharmaceutical Analysis." Sensors 6, no. 12: 1837-1850.

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