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Sensors, Volume 2, Issue 6 (June 2002), Pages 195-243

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Research

Open AccessArticle Chemical detection in liquid media with a refractometric sensor based on a multimode optical fibre
Sensors 2002, 2(6), 195-204; doi:10.3390/s20600195
Received: 10 May 2002 / Accepted: 30 May 2002 / Published: 20 June 2002
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (111 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper the physical basis for the design of an optical fibre sensor suited for aqueous medium and gas phase based on the excitation of an evanescent wave at the core/cladding interface is developed. The detection based on the refractive index [...] Read more.
In this paper the physical basis for the design of an optical fibre sensor suited for aqueous medium and gas phase based on the excitation of an evanescent wave at the core/cladding interface is developed. The detection based on the refractive index changes (between 1.41 and 1.45) of the infinite dielectric medium which can be an electrolyte or a sol-gel polymer deposited on the uncladed part of the fibre. Refractive indices of absorbent and volatile compounds such as fuel and unleaded gas were determined. Using a xerogel sensing layer as optical cladding, toluene detection in water was performed. The observed sensitivity is linear and the detection limit is 1% (in volume) toluene in water. Full article
Open AccessArticle Thin films of In2O3/SiO for Humidity Sensing Applications
Sensors 2002, 2(6), 205-218; doi:10.3390/s20600205
Received: 10 May 2002 / Accepted: 20 May 2002 / Published: 21 June 2002
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper documents the manufacture and testing of a humidity sensor based on a combination of In2O3/SiO. A number of different sensor samples have been produced by thermal deposition and the effect of varying the vacuum pressure has [...] Read more.
This paper documents the manufacture and testing of a humidity sensor based on a combination of In2O3/SiO. A number of different sensor samples have been produced by thermal deposition and the effect of varying the vacuum pressure has also been investigated. The AC and DC conduction mechanisms have been investigated. From the AC conduction studies, the tunneling conduction mechanism has been observed at low frequencies and the hopping conduction mechanism, for the majority of sensor samples, has been observed at high frequencies. The DC conduction mechanisms have indicated the possibility of spacecharge-limited conduction. The sensor with the highest humidity sensitivity of 1.145%/RH% is 85%In2O3/15%SiO, which is produced at a vacuum pressure of 2×10-4 mbar.From the point of view of temperature stability, the 55%In2O3/45%SiO samples produced at a vacuum pressure of 2×10-4 mbar exhibit the lowest temperature sensitivity, 0.3%/oC. Full article
Open AccessArticle Remote Query Resonant-Circuit Sensors for Monitoring of Bacteria Growth: Application to Food Quality Control
Sensors 2002, 2(6), 219-232; doi:10.3390/s20600219
Received: 15 June 2002 / Accepted: 17 June 2002 / Published: 22 June 2002
Cited by 36 | PDF Full-text (364 KB)
Abstract
This paper presents a technique for in-situ remote query monitoring of bacteria growth utilizing a printed thin or thick-film sensor comprised of an inductor-capacitor (LC) resonant circuit. The sensor, which is placed within the biological medium of interest and remotely detected using [...] Read more.
This paper presents a technique for in-situ remote query monitoring of bacteria growth utilizing a printed thin or thick-film sensor comprised of an inductor-capacitor (LC) resonant circuit. The sensor, which is placed within the biological medium of interest and remotely detected using a loop antenna, measures the complex permittivity of the medium. Since bacteria growth increases the complex permittivity of a biological medium the LC sensor can be used to determine bacteria concentration. This paper presents results on monitoring of three different bacteria strains, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli JM109, and Pseudomonas putida, demonstrating application of the sensor for monitoring bacteria growth in milk, meat, and beer. Due to its low unit cost and remote query detection, the sensor is potentially useful for commercial scale monitoring of food quality. Full article
Open AccessArticle Polystyrene Based Silver Selective Electrodes
Sensors 2002, 2(6), 233-243; doi:10.3390/s20600233
Received: 2 June 2002 / Accepted: 18 June 2002 / Published: 24 June 2002
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (615 KB)
Abstract
Silver(I) selective sensors have been fabricated from polystyrene matrix membranes containing macrocycle, Me6(14) diene.2HClO4 as ionophore. Best performance was exhibited by the membrane having a composition macrocycle : Polystyrene in the ratio 15:1. This membrane worked well over a wide concentration range 5.0×10-6–1.0×10-1M of Ag+ with a near-Nernstian slope of 53.0 ± 1.0 mV per decade of Ag+ activity. The response time of the sensor is <15 s and the membrane can be used over a period of four months with good reproducibility. The proposed electrode works well in a wide pH range 2.5-9.0 and demonstrates good discriminating power over a number of mono-, di-, and trivalent cations. The sensor has also been used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of silver(II) ions against NaCl solution. The sensor can also be used in non-aqueous medium with no significant change in the value of slope or working concentration range for the estimation of Ag+ in solution having up to 25% (v/v) nonaqueous fraction. Full article

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