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Sensors 2018, 18(9), 3037; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18093037

Fecal Volatile Organic Compounds in Preterm Infants Are Influenced by Enteral Feeding Composition

1
Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Academic Medical Center, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Máxima Medical Center, 5504 DB Veldhoven, The Netherlands
4
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
5
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Emma Children’s Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
6
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Amalia Children’s Center/Isala, 8025 AB Zwolle, The Netherlands
7
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam UMC, VU University Medical Center, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue VOC Sensors Applicable to IoT and Healthcare)
Full-Text   |   PDF [966 KB, uploaded 11 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Fecal volatile organic compound (VOC) analysis has shown great potential as a noninvasive diagnostic biomarker for a variety of diseases. Before clinical implementation, the factors influencing the outcome of VOC analysis need to be assessed. Recent studies found that the sampling conditions can influence the outcome of VOC analysis. However, the dietary influences remains unknown, especially in (preterm) infants. Therefore, we assessed the effects of feeding composition on fecal VOC patterns of preterm infants (born at <30 weeks gestation). Two subgroups were defined: (1) daily intake >75% breastmilk (BM) feeding and (2) daily intake >75% formula milk (FM) feeding. Fecal samples, which were collected at 7, 14 and 21 days postnatally, were analyzed by an electronic nose device (Cyranose 320®). In total, 30 preterm infants were included (15 FM, 15 BM). No differences in the fecal VOC patterns were observed at the three predefined time-points. Combining the fecal VOC profiles of these time-points resulted in a statistically significant difference between the two subgroups although this discriminative accuracy was only modest (AUC [95% CI]; p-value; sensitivity; and specificity of 0.64 [0.51–0.77]; 0.04; 68%; and 51%, respectively). Our results suggest that the influence of enteral feeding on the outcome of fecal VOC analysis cannot be ignored in this population. Furthermore, in both subgroups, the fecal VOC patterns showed a stable longitudinal course within the first month of life. View Full-Text
Keywords: VOC; volatile organic compound; eNose; nutrition; feces; breast milk; formula feeding; preterm infants; electronic nose; flatography VOC; volatile organic compound; eNose; nutrition; feces; breast milk; formula feeding; preterm infants; electronic nose; flatography
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

el Manouni el Hassani, S.; Niemarkt, H.J.; Said, H.; Berkhout, D.J.C.; van Kaam, A.H.; van Lingen, R.A.; Benninga, M.A.; de Boer, N.K.H.; de Meij, T.G.J. Fecal Volatile Organic Compounds in Preterm Infants Are Influenced by Enteral Feeding Composition. Sensors 2018, 18, 3037.

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