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Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2727; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082727

AOA-Based Three-Dimensional Multi-Target Localization in Industrial WSNs for LOS Conditions

1
Department of Communication Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China
2
Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
3
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 9 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 19 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

High-precision and fast relative positioning of a large number of mobile sensor nodes (MSNs) is crucial for smart industrial wireless sensor networks (SIWSNs). However, positioning multiple targets simultaneously in three-dimensional (3D) space has been less explored. In this paper, we propose a new approach, called Angle-of-Arrival (AOA) based Three-dimensional Multi-target Localization (ATML). The approach utilizes two anchor nodes (ANs) with antenna arrays to receive the spread spectrum signals broadcast by MSNs. We design a multi-target single-input-multiple-output (MT-SIMO) signal transmission scheme and a simple iterative maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) to estimate the 2D AOAs of multiple MSNs simultaneously. We further adopt the skew line theorem of 3D geometry to mitigate the AOA estimation errors in determining locations. We have conducted extensive simulations and also developed a testbed of the proposed ATML. The numerical and field experiment results have verified that the proposed ATML can locate multiple MSNs simultaneously with high accuracy and efficiency by exploiting the spread spectrum gain and antenna array gain. The ATML scheme does not require extra hardware or synchronization among nodes, and has good capability in mitigating interference and multipath effect in complicated industrial environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor network; localization; smart industrial; angle of arrival; maximum likelihood estimator; antenna array. wireless sensor network; localization; smart industrial; angle of arrival; maximum likelihood estimator; antenna array.
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhang, R.; Liu, J.; Du, X.; Li, B.; Guizani, M. AOA-Based Three-Dimensional Multi-Target Localization in Industrial WSNs for LOS Conditions. Sensors 2018, 18, 2727.

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