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Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2631; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082631

A Novel and Safe Approach to Simulate Cutting Movements Using Ground Reaction Forces

1
Biomechanics and Movement Science Program, College of Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
2
Department of Biomechanics and Center for Research in Human Movement Variability, College of Education, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182, USA
3
Delaware Rehabilitation Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
4
Department of Environmental, Agricultural & Occupational Health, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2018 / Revised: 6 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Gait, Posture, and Health Monitoring)
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Abstract

Control of shear ground reaction forces (sGRF) is important in performing running and cutting tasks as poor sGRF control has implications for those with knee injuries, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. The goal of this study was to develop a novel and safe task to evaluate control or accurate modulation of shear ground reaction forces related to those generated during cutting. Our approach utilized a force control task using real-time visual feedback of a subject’s force production and evaluated control capabilities through accuracy and divergence measurements. Ten healthy recreational athletes completed the force control task while force control via accuracy measures and divergence calculations was investigated. Participants were able to accurately control sGRF in multiple directions based on error measurements. Forces generated during the task were equal to or greater than those measured during a number of functional activities. We found no significant difference in the divergence of the force profiles using the Lyapunov Exponent of the sGRF trajectories. Participants using our approach produced high accuracy and low divergence force profiles and functional force magnitudes. Moving forward, we will utilize this task in at-risk populations who are unable to complete a cutting maneuver in early stages of rehabilitation, such as ACL deficient and newly reconstructed individuals, allowing insight into force control not obtainable otherwise. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomechanics; movement control; anterior cruciate ligament; kinetics; real-time feedback biomechanics; movement control; anterior cruciate ligament; kinetics; real-time feedback
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Lanier, A.S.; Knarr, B.A.; Stergiou, N.; Buchanan, T.S. A Novel and Safe Approach to Simulate Cutting Movements Using Ground Reaction Forces. Sensors 2018, 18, 2631.

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