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Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2613; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082613

Application of Electronic-Nose Technologies and VOC-Biomarkers for the Noninvasive Early Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Diseases

Pathology Department, Southern Hardwoods Laboratory, Center for Bottomland Hardwoods Research, Southern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, 432 Stoneville Road, Stoneville, MS 38776, USA
This is an extended version of Wilson, A.D. Recent Applications of Electronic-nose Technologies for the Noninvasive Early Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Diseases. In Proceedings of the 4th International Electronic Conference on Sensors and Applications, 15–30 November 2017.
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract

Conventional methods utilized for clinical diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases have employed invasive medical procedures that cause stress, anxiety and pain to patients. These methods are often expensive, time-consuming, and require sophisticated chemical-analysis instruments and advanced modeling procedures to achieve diagnostic interpretations. This paper reviews recent applications of simpler, electronic-nose (e-nose) devices for the noninvasive early diagnosis of a wide range of GI diseases by collective analysis of headspace volatile organic compound (VOC)-metabolites from clinical samples to produce disease-specific aroma signatures (VOC profiles). A different “metabolomics” approach to GI disease diagnostics, involving identifications and quantifications of disease VOC-metabolites, are compared to the electronic-nose approach based on diagnostic costs, accuracy, advantages and disadvantages. The importance of changes in gut microbiome composition that result from disease are discussed relative to effects on disease detection. A new diagnostic approach, which combines the use of e-nose instruments for early rapid prophylactic disease-screenings with targeted identification of known disease biomarkers, is proposed to yield cheaper, quicker and more dependable diagnostic results. Some priority future research needs and coordination for bringing e-nose instruments into routine clinical practice are summarized. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial dysbiosis; early noninvasive diagnoses; electronic aroma detection; e-nose devices; GI-disease biomarkers; healthcare applications; metabolite profiles; point-of-care testing; volatile organic compounds bacterial dysbiosis; early noninvasive diagnoses; electronic aroma detection; e-nose devices; GI-disease biomarkers; healthcare applications; metabolite profiles; point-of-care testing; volatile organic compounds
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Wilson, A.D. Application of Electronic-Nose Technologies and VOC-Biomarkers for the Noninvasive Early Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Diseases . Sensors 2018, 18, 2613.

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