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Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1529; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051529

DOW-PR DOlphin and Whale Pods Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs)

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2
Department of Computer Systems Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
3
School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK
4
School of Electronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, China
5
Department of Software Engineering, Bahria University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 6 May 2018 / Published: 12 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have intrinsic challenges that include long propagation delays, high mobility of sensor nodes due to water currents, Doppler spread, delay variance, multipath, attenuation and geometric spreading. The existing Weighting Depth and Forwarding Area Division Depth Based Routing (WDFAD-DBR) protocol considers the weighting depth of the two hops in order to select the next Potential Forwarding Node (PFN). To improve the performance of WDFAD-DBR, we propose DOlphin and Whale Pod Routing protocol (DOW-PR). In this scheme, we divide the transmission range into a number of transmission power levels and at the same time select the next PFNs from forwarding and suppressed zones. In contrast to WDFAD-DBR, our scheme not only considers the packet upward advancement, but also takes into account the number of suppressed nodes and number of PFNs at the first and second hops. Consequently, reasonable energy reduction is observed while receiving and transmitting packets. Moreover, our scheme also considers the hops count of the PFNs from the sink. In the absence of PFNs, the proposed scheme will select the node from the suppressed region for broadcasting and thus ensures minimum loss of data. Besides this, we also propose another routing scheme (whale pod) in which multiple sinks are placed at water surface, but one sink is embedded inside the water and is physically connected with the surface sink through high bandwidth connection. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has high Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), low energy tax, reduced Accumulated Propagation Distance (APD) and increased the network lifetime. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs); dolphin and whale pods routing (DOW-PR); end-to-end delay (E2ED); potential forwarding nodes (PFNs); suppressed nodes underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs); dolphin and whale pods routing (DOW-PR); end-to-end delay (E2ED); potential forwarding nodes (PFNs); suppressed nodes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Wadud, Z.; Ullah, K.; Hussain, S.; Yang, X.; Qazi, A.B. DOW-PR DOlphin and Whale Pods Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). Sensors 2018, 18, 1529.

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