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Sensors 2018, 18(5), 1527; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18051527

Cellular-V2X Communications for Platooning: Design and Evaluation

1
Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell Informazione, University of Pisa, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, 56122 Pisa, Italy
2
Dipartimento DIIES, University Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, Loc. Feo di Vito, 89122 Reggio Calabria, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 22 April 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 11 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor Networks for Smart Roads)
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Abstract

Platooning is a cooperative driving application where autonomous/semi-autonomous vehicles move on the same lane in a train-like manner, keeping a small constant inter-vehicle distance, in order to reduce fuel consumption and gas emissions and to achieve safe and efficient transport. To this aim, they may exploit multiple on-board sensors (e.g., radars, LiDARs, positioning systems) and direct vehicle-to-vehicle communications to synchronize their manoeuvres. The main objective of this paper is to discuss the design choices and factors that determine the performance of a platooning application, when exploiting the emerging cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) communication technology and considering the scheduled mode, specified by 3GPP for communications over the sidelink assisted by the eNodeB. Since no resource management algorithm is currently mandated by 3GPP for this new challenging context, we focus on analyzing the feasibility and performance of the dynamic scheduling approach, with platoon members asking for radio resources on a per-packet basis. We consider two ways of implementing dynamic scheduling, currently unspecified by 3GPP: the sequential mode, that is somehow reminiscent of time division multiple access solutions based on IEEE 802.11p—till now the only investigated access technology for platooning—and the simultaneous mode with spatial frequency reuse enabled by the eNodeB. The evaluation conducted through system-level simulations provides helpful insights about the proposed configurations and C-V2X parameter settings that mainly affect the reliability and latency performance of data exchange in platoons, under different load settings. Achieved results show that the proposed simultaneous mode succeeds in reducing the latency in the update cycle in each vehicle’s controller, thus enabling future high-density platooning scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: V2X; cellular V2X; VANETs; cooperative driving; 3GPP; platooning V2X; cellular V2X; VANETs; cooperative driving; 3GPP; platooning
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Nardini, G.; Virdis, A.; Campolo, C.; Molinaro, A.; Stea, G. Cellular-V2X Communications for Platooning: Design and Evaluation. Sensors 2018, 18, 1527.

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