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Sensors 2018, 18(4), 1198; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18041198

Optimizing the Energy and Throughput of a Water-Quality Monitoring System

Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
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Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 3 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 13 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

This work presents a new approach to the maximization of energy and throughput in a wireless sensor network (WSN), with the intention of applying the approach to water-quality monitoring. Water-quality monitoring using WSN technology has become an interesting research area. Energy scarcity is a critical issue that plagues the widespread deployment of WSN systems. Different power supplies, harvesting energy from sustainable sources, have been explored. However, when energy-efficient models are not put in place, energy harvesting based WSN systems may experience an unstable energy supply, resulting in an interruption in communication, and low system throughput. To alleviate these problems, this paper presents the joint maximization of the energy harvested by sensor nodes and their information-transmission rate using a sum-throughput technique. A wireless information and power transfer (WIPT) method is considered by harvesting energy from dedicated radio frequency sources. Due to the doubly near–far condition that confronts WIPT systems, a new WIPT system is proposed to improve the fairness of resource utilization in the network. Numerical simulation results are presented to validate the mathematical formulations for the optimization problem, which maximize the energy harvested and the overall throughput rate. Defining the performance metrics of achievable throughput and fairness in resource sharing, the proposed WIPT system outperforms an existing state-of-the-art WIPT system, with the comparison based on numerical simulations of both systems. The improved energy efficiency of the proposed WIPT system contributes to addressing the problem of energy scarcity. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy harvesting; energy efficiency; water-quality monitoring; wireless sensor network; optimization energy harvesting; energy efficiency; water-quality monitoring; wireless sensor network; optimization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Olatinwo, S.O.; Joubert, T.-H. Optimizing the Energy and Throughput of a Water-Quality Monitoring System. Sensors 2018, 18, 1198.

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