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Sensors 2018, 18(3), 800; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030800

Electrochemical Sensor for Bilirubin Detection Using Screen Printed Electrodes Functionalized with Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

Nanophotonics and Metrology Laboratory (NAM), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
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Received: 6 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Screen-Printed Electrodes)
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Abstract

Practice oriented point-of-care diagnostics require easy-to-handle, miniaturized, and low-cost analytical tools. In a novel approach, screen printed carbon electrodes (SPEs), which were functionalized with nanomaterials, are employed for selective measurements of bilirubin, which is an important biomarker for jaundice. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and graphene separately deposited on SPEs provide the core of an electrochemical sensor for bilirubin. The electrocatalytic activity towards bilirubin oxidation (bilirubin to biliverdin) was observed at +0.25 V. In addition, a further peak corresponding to the electrochemical conversion of biliverdin into purpurin appeared at +0.48 V. When compared to MWCNT, the graphene type shows a 3-fold lower detection limit (0.3 ± 0.022 nM and 0.1 ± 0.018 nM, respectively), moreover, the graphene type exhibits a larger linear range (0.1–600 µM) than MWCNT (0.5–500 µM) with a two-fold better sensitivity, i.e., 30 nA µM−1 cm−2, and 15 nA µM−1 cm−2, respectively. The viability is validated through measurements of bilirubin in blood serum samples and the selectivity is ensured by inhibiting common interfering biological substrates using an ionic nafion membrane. The presented approach enables the design and implementation of low cost and miniaturized electrochemical sensors. View Full-Text
Keywords: screen printed electrode (SPE); bilirubin; electrochemical sensor; carbon nanotubes (CNT); graphene; nanomaterials; electrochemical analysis screen printed electrode (SPE); bilirubin; electrochemical sensor; carbon nanotubes (CNT); graphene; nanomaterials; electrochemical analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Thangamuthu, M.; Gabriel, W.E.; Santschi, C.; Martin, O.J.F. Electrochemical Sensor for Bilirubin Detection Using Screen Printed Electrodes Functionalized with Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene. Sensors 2018, 18, 800.

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