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Sensors 2018, 18(3), 798; doi:10.3390/s18030798

Underwater Turbulence Detection Using Gated Wavefront Sensing Technique

School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia
College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022, China
Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Bandar Sungai Long, Kajang 43000, Malaysia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechatronic Systems for Automatic Vehicles)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4281 KB, uploaded 7 March 2018]   |  


Laser sensing has been applied in various underwater applications, ranging from underwater detection to laser underwater communications. However, there are several great challenges when profiling underwater turbulence effects. Underwater detection is greatly affected by the turbulence effect, where the acquired image suffers excessive noise, blurring, and deformation. In this paper, we propose a novel underwater turbulence detection method based on a gated wavefront sensing technique. First, we elaborate on the operating principle of gated wavefront sensing and wavefront reconstruction. We then setup an experimental system in order to validate the feasibility of our proposed method. The effect of underwater turbulence on detection is examined at different distances, and under different turbulence levels. The experimental results obtained from our gated wavefront sensing system indicate that underwater turbulence can be detected and analyzed. The proposed gated wavefront sensing system has the advantage of a simple structure and high detection efficiency for underwater environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater turbulence; gated wavefront sensing; time-of-flight underwater turbulence; gated wavefront sensing; time-of-flight

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bi, Y.; Xu, X.; Chua, S.Y.; Chow, E.M.T.; Wang, X. Underwater Turbulence Detection Using Gated Wavefront Sensing Technique. Sensors 2018, 18, 798.

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