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Sensors 2018, 18(3), 778; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030778

Robust Time-Difference-of-Arrival (TDOA) Localization Using Weighted Least Squares with Cone Tangent Plane Constraint

Key Laboratory of Micro-Inertial Instrument and Advanced Navigation Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Instrument Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, China
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Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 4 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Communication Protocols and Algorithms for Sensor Networks)
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Abstract

Finding the position of a radiative source based on time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) measurements from spatially separated receivers has been widely applied in sonar, radar, mobile communications and sensor networks. For the nonlinear model in the process of positioning, Taylor series and other novel methods are proposed. The idea of cone constraint provides a new way of solving this problem. However, these approaches do not always perform well and are away from the Cramer-Rao-Lower-Bound (CRLB) in the situations when the source is set at the array edge, the noise in measurement is loud, or the initial position is biased. This paper presents a weighted-least-squares (WLS) algorithm with the cone tangent plane constraint for hyperbolic positioning. The method adds the range between the source and the reference sensor as a dimension. So, the space-range frame is established. Different from other cone theories, this paper sets the reference sensor as the apex and finds the optimal source estimation on the cone. WLS is used for the optimal result from the measurement plane equations, a vertical constraint and a cone constraint. The cone constraint equation is linearized by a tangent plane. This method iterates through loops and updates the tangent plane, which approximates the truth-value on the cone. The proposed algorithm was simulated and verified under various conditions of different source positions and noises. Besides, some state-of-the-art algorithms were compared in these simulations. The results show that this algorithm is accurate and robust under poor external environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: cone; positioning; robust; Taylor; TDOA; WLS cone; positioning; robust; Taylor; TDOA; WLS
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Jin, B.; Xu, X.; Zhang, T. Robust Time-Difference-of-Arrival (TDOA) Localization Using Weighted Least Squares with Cone Tangent Plane Constraint. Sensors 2018, 18, 778.

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