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Sensors 2018, 18(2), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020642

A Novel Early Warning System Based on a Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell for In Situ and Real Time Hexavalent Chromium Detection in Industrial Wastewater

1
MOE Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Tianshuinanlu #222, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China
2
Gansu Key Laboratory of Biomonitoring and Bioremediation for Environmental Pollution, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Tianshuinanlu #222, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China
3
Department of Developmental Biology, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Tianshuinanlu #222, Lanzhou 730000, Gansu, China
4
Gansu Academy of Membrane Science and Technology, Duanjiatanlu #1272, Lanzhou 730020, Gansu, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 February 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Monitoring Biosensors)
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Abstract

Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a well-known toxic heavy metal in industrial wastewater, but in situ and real time monitoring cannot be achieved by current methods used during industrial wastewater treatment processes. In this study, a Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC) was used as a biosensor for in situ real-time monitoring of Cr(VI), which was the organic substrate is oxidized in the anode and Cr(VI) is reduced at the cathode simultaneously. The pH 6.4 and temperature 25 °C were optimal conditions for the operation. Under the optimal conditions, linearity (R2 = 0.9935) of the generated voltage was observed in the Cr(VI) concentration range from 0.2 to 0.7 mg/L. The system showed high specificity for Cr(VI), as other co-existing ions such as Cu2+, Zn2+, and Pb2+ did not interfere with Cr(VI) detection. In addition, when the sediment MFC-based biosensor was applied for measuring Cr(VI) in actual wastewater samples, a low deviation (<8%) was obtained, which indicated its potential as a reliable biosensor device. MiSeq sequencing results showed that electrochemically active bacteria (Geobacter and Pseudomonas) were enriched at least two-fold on the biofilm of the anode in the biosensor as compared to the SMFC without Cr(VI). Cyclic voltammetry curves indicated that a pair of oxidation/reduction peaks appeared at −111 mV and 581 mV, respectively. These results demonstrated that the proposed sediment microbial fuel cell-based biosensor can be applied as an early warning device for real time in situ detection of Cr(VI) in industrial wastewaters. View Full-Text
Keywords: sediment microbial fuel cell; hexavalent chromium; biosensor; in situ; real time sediment microbial fuel cell; hexavalent chromium; biosensor; in situ; real time
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zhao, S.; Liu, P.; Niu, Y.; Chen, Z.; Khan, A.; Zhang, P.; Li, X. A Novel Early Warning System Based on a Sediment Microbial Fuel Cell for In Situ and Real Time Hexavalent Chromium Detection in Industrial Wastewater. Sensors 2018, 18, 642.

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