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Sensors 2018, 18(2), 626; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020626

Three-Level De-Multiplexed Dual-Branch Complex Delta-Sigma Transmitter

1
iRadio Lab, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
2
Ericsson Canada Inc., Mississauga, ON K2K 2V6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2017 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract

In this paper, a dual-branch topology driven by a Delta-Sigma Modulator (DSM) with a complex quantizer, also known as the Complex Delta Sigma Modulator (CxDSM), with a 3-level quantized output signal is proposed. By de-multiplexing the 3-level Delta-Sigma-quantized signal into two bi-level streams, an efficiency enhancement over the operational frequency range is achieved. The de-multiplexed signals drive a dual-branch amplification block composed of two switch-mode back-to-back power amplifiers working at peak power. A signal processing technique known as quantization noise reduction with In-band Filtering (QNRIF) is applied to each of the de-multiplexed streams to boost the overall performances; particularly the Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR). After amplification, the two branches are combined using a non-isolated combiner, preserving the efficiency of the transmitter. A comprehensive study on the operation of this topology and signal characteristics used to drive the dual-branch Switch-Mode Power Amplifiers (SMPAs) was established. Moreover, this work proposes a highly efficient design of the amplification block based on a back-to-back power topology performing a dynamic load modulation exploiting the non-overlapping properties of the de-multiplexed Complex DSM signal. For experimental validation, the proposed de-multiplexed 3-level Delta-Sigma topology was implemented on the BEEcube™ platform followed by the back-to-back Class-E switch-mode power amplification block. The full transceiver is assessed using a 4th-Generation mobile communications standard LTE (Long Term Evolution) standard 1.4 MHz signal with a peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of 8 dB. The dual-branch topology exhibited a good linearity and a coding efficiency of the transmitter chain higher than 72% across the band of frequency from 1.8 GHz to 2.7 GHz. View Full-Text
Keywords: highly-efficient transmitter; multi-level Complex Delta-Sigma Modulator; switch mode power amplifier; dual branch amplification highly-efficient transmitter; multi-level Complex Delta-Sigma Modulator; switch mode power amplifier; dual branch amplification
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Arfi, A.B.; Elsayed, F.; Aflaki, P.M.; Morris, B.; Ghannouchi, F.M. Three-Level De-Multiplexed Dual-Branch Complex Delta-Sigma Transmitter. Sensors 2018, 18, 626.

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