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Sensors 2018, 18(2), 561; doi:10.3390/s18020561

Force Modeling, Identification, and Feedback Control of Robot-Assisted Needle Insertion: A Survey of the Literature

Department of Instrumental and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China
Shenzhen Research Institute of Xiamen University, Shenzhen 518000, China
School of Mechanical and Power Engineer, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China
Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Force and Pressure Based Sensing Medical Application)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5115 KB, uploaded 12 February 2018]   |  


Robot-assisted surgery is of growing interest in the surgical and engineering communities. The use of robots allows surgery to be performed with precision using smaller instruments and incisions, resulting in shorter healing times. However, using current technology, an operator cannot directly feel the operation because the surgeon-instrument and instrument-tissue interaction force feedbacks are lost during needle insertion. Advancements in force feedback and control not only help reduce tissue deformation and needle deflection but also provide the surgeon with better control over the surgical instruments. The goal of this review is to summarize the key components surrounding the force feedback and control during robot-assisted needle insertion. The literature search was conducted during the middle months of 2017 using mainstream academic search engines with a combination of keywords relevant to the field. In total, 166 articles with valuable contents were analyzed and grouped into five related topics. This survey systemically summarizes the state-of-the-art force control technologies for robot-assisted needle insertion, such as force modeling, measurement, the factors that influence the interaction force, parameter identification, and force control algorithms. All studies show force control is still at its initial stage. The influence factors, needle deflection or planning remain open for investigation in future. View Full-Text
Keywords: needle insertion; force modeling; force measurement; parameter identification; force control needle insertion; force modeling; force measurement; parameter identification; force control

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Yang, C.; Xie, Y.; Liu, S.; Sun, D. Force Modeling, Identification, and Feedback Control of Robot-Assisted Needle Insertion: A Survey of the Literature. Sensors 2018, 18, 561.

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