Next Article in Journal
Low-Cost Wireless Temperature Measurement: Design, Manufacture, and Testing of a PCB-Based Wireless Passive Temperature Sensor
Next Article in Special Issue
Responsive Polydiacetylene Vesicles for Biosensing Microorganisms
Previous Article in Journal
Cave Pearl Data Logger: A Flexible Arduino-Based Logging Platform for Long-Term Monitoring in Harsh Environments
Previous Article in Special Issue
Polymeric Flexible Immunosensor Based on Piezoresistive Micro-Cantilever with PEDOT/PSS Conductive Layer
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 531; doi:10.3390/s18020531

Towards Phosphate Detection in Hydroponics Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensors

1
School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
2
Organic Materials Innovation Centre, School of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK
3
School of Materials, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 January 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 10 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer-Based Sensors for Bioanalytes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2507 KB, uploaded 12 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

An interdigitated electrode sensor was designed and microfabricated for measuring the changes in the capacitance of three phosphate selective molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) formulations, in order to provide hydroponics users with a portable nutrient sensing tool. The MIPs investigated were synthesised using different combinations of the functional monomers methacrylic acid (MAA) and N-allylthiourea, against the template molecules diphenyl phosphate, triethyl phosphate, and trimethyl phosphate. A cross-interference study between phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate was carried out for the MIP materials using an inductance, capacitance, and resistance (LCR) meter. Capacitance measurements were taken by applying an alternating current (AC) with a potential difference of 1 V root mean square (RMS) at a frequency of 1 kHz. The cross-interference study demonstrated a strong binding preference to phosphate over the other nutrient salts tested for each formulation. The size of template molecule and length of the functional monomer side groups also determined that a short chain functional monomer in combination with a template containing large R-groups produced the optimal binding site conditions when synthesising a phosphate selective MIP. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroponics; interdigitated electrodes; molecularly imprinted polymer; nutrient monitoring; phosphate; polymer sensor; precision agriculture hydroponics; interdigitated electrodes; molecularly imprinted polymer; nutrient monitoring; phosphate; polymer sensor; precision agriculture
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Storer, C.S.; Coldrick, Z.; Tate, D.J.; Donoghue, J.M.; Grieve, B. Towards Phosphate Detection in Hydroponics Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Sensors. Sensors 2018, 18, 531.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top