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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010040

Quantitative Determination of Spring Water Quality Parameters via Electronic Tongue

1
Instituto Interuniversitario de Investigación de Reconocimiento Molecular y Desarrollo Tecnológico (IDM), Unidad Mixta Universitat Politècnica de València-Universitat de València, Camí de Vera s/N, 46022 Valencia, Spain
2
Sociedad de Fomento Agrícola Castellonense (FACSA), C/Mayor 82-84, 12001 Castellón, Spain
3
Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería del Diseño, Universitat Politècnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/N, 46022 Valencia, Spain
4
Departamento de Química, Universitat Politècnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/N, 46022 Valencia, Spain
5
CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BNN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain
6
Unidad Mixta de Investigación en Nanomedicina y Sensores, Universitat Politècnica de València, IIS La Fe, 46026 Valencia, Spain
7
Unidad Mixta UPV-CIPF de Investigación en Mecanismos de Enfermedades y Nanomedicina, Universitat Politècnica de València, Centro de Investigación Príncipe Felipe, 46022 Valencia, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 18 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronic Tongues and Electronic Noses)
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Abstract

The use of a voltammetric electronic tongue for the quantitative analysis of quality parameters in spring water is proposed here. The electronic voltammetric tongue consisted of a set of four noble electrodes (iridium, rhodium, platinum, and gold) housed inside a stainless steel cylinder. These noble metals have a high durability and are not demanding for maintenance, features required for the development of future automated equipment. A pulse voltammetry study was conducted in 83 spring water samples to determine concentrations of nitrate (range: 6.9–115 mg/L), sulfate (32–472 mg/L), fluoride (0.08–0.26 mg/L), chloride (17–190 mg/L), and sodium (11–94 mg/L) as well as pH (7.3–7.8). These parameters were also determined by routine analytical methods in spring water samples. A partial least squares (PLS) analysis was run to obtain a model to predict these parameter. Orthogonal signal correction (OSC) was applied in the preprocessing step. Calibration (67%) and validation (33%) sets were selected randomly. The electronic tongue showed good predictive power to determine the concentrations of nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and sodium as well as pH and displayed a lower R2 and slope in the validation set for fluoride. Nitrate and fluoride concentrations were estimated with errors lower than 15%, whereas chloride, sulfate, and sodium concentrations as well as pH were estimated with errors below 10%. View Full-Text
Keywords: spring water; electronic voltammetric tongue; water quality control; partial least squares spring water; electronic voltammetric tongue; water quality control; partial least squares
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Carbó, N.; López Carrero, J.; Garcia-Castillo, F.J.; Tormos, I.; Olivas, E.; Folch, E.; Alcañiz Fillol, M.; Soto, J.; Martínez-Máñez, R.; Martínez-Bisbal, M.C. Quantitative Determination of Spring Water Quality Parameters via Electronic Tongue. Sensors 2018, 18, 40.

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