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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 308; doi:10.3390/s18010308

Development of a Label-Free Immunosensor for Clusterin Detection as an Alzheimer’s Biomarker

1
Wolfson Nanomaterials & Devices Laboratory, School of Computing, Electronics and Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Devon PL4 8AA, UK
2
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 18 January 2018 / Published: 20 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Label-Free Biosensors)
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Abstract

Clusterin (CLU) has been associated with the clinical progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and described as a potential AD biomarker in blood plasma. Due to the enormous attention given to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for the past couple of decades, recently found blood-based AD biomarkers like CLU have not yet been reported for biosensors. Herein, we report the electrochemical detection of CLU for the first time using a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with 1-pyrenebutyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (Pyr-NHS) and decorated with specific anti-CLU antibody fragments. This bifunctional linker molecule contains succinylimide ester to bind protein at one end while its pyrene moiety attaches to the carbon surface by means of π-π stacking. Cyclic voltammetric and square wave voltammetric studies showed the limit of detection down to 1 pg/mL and a linear concentration range of 1–100 pg/mL with good sensitivity. Detection of CLU in spiked human plasma was demonstrated with satisfactory recovery percentages to that of the calibration data. The proposed method facilitates the cost-effective and viable production of label-free point-of-care devices for the clinical diagnosis of AD. View Full-Text
Keywords: clusterin; electrochemical biosensor; label-free immunosensor; cyclic voltammetry; square wave voltammetry; screen-printed electrodes; Alzheimer’s disease clusterin; electrochemical biosensor; label-free immunosensor; cyclic voltammetry; square wave voltammetry; screen-printed electrodes; Alzheimer’s disease
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Islam, K.; Damiati, S.; Sethi, J.; Suhail, A.; Pan, G. Development of a Label-Free Immunosensor for Clusterin Detection as an Alzheimer’s Biomarker. Sensors 2018, 18, 308.

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