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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 257; doi:10.3390/s18010257

Polyacrylamide Ferrogels with Magnetite or Strontium Hexaferrite: Next Step in the Development of Soft Biomimetic Matter for Biosensor Applications

1
Institute of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg 620002, Russia
2
Institute of Electrophysics, Ural Division RAS, Ekaterinburg 620016, Russia
3
Departamento de Electricidad y ElectrónicaUniversidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao, Spain
4
Deapartment of Physics, University of Birjand, Birjand 97175-615, Iran
5
Biomedical Physics and Engineering Department, Ural State Medical University, Ekaterinburg 620028, Russia
6
Advanced Research Facilities (SGIKER), Universidad del País Vasco UPV-EHU, 48080 Bilbao, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 16 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Materials Based Biosensors)
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Abstract

Magnetic biosensors are an important part of biomedical applications of magnetic materials. As the living tissue is basically a “soft matter.” this study addresses the development of ferrogels (FG) with micron sized magnetic particles of magnetite and strontium hexaferrite mimicking the living tissue. The basic composition of the FG comprised the polymeric network of polyacrylamide, synthesized by free radical polymerization of monomeric acrylamide (AAm) in water solution at three levels of concentration (1.1 M, 0.85 M and 0.58 M) to provide the FG with varying elasticity. To improve FG biocompatibility and to prevent the precipitation of the particles, polysaccharide thickeners—guar gum or xanthan gum were used. The content of magnetic particles in FG varied up to 5.2 wt % depending on the FG composition. The mechanical properties of FG and their deformation in a uniform magnetic field were comparatively analyzed. FG filled with strontium hexaferrite particles have larger Young’s modulus value than FG filled with magnetite particles, most likely due to the specific features of the adhesion of the network’s polymeric subchains on the surface of the particles. FG networks with xanthan are stronger and have higher modulus than the FG with guar. FG based on magnetite, contract in a magnetic field 0.42 T, whereas some FG based on strontium hexaferrite swell. Weak FG with the lowest concentration of AAm shows a much stronger response to a field, as the concentration of AAm governs the Young’s modulus of ferrogel. A small magnetic field magnetoimpedance sensor prototype with Co68.6Fe3.9Mo3.0Si12.0B12.5 rapidly quenched amorphous ribbon based element was designed aiming to develop a sensor working with a disposable stripe sensitive element. The proposed protocol allowed measurements of the concentration dependence of magnetic particles in gels using magnetoimpedance responses in the presence of magnetite and strontium hexaferrite ferrogels with xanthan. We have discussed the importance of magnetic history for the detection process and demonstrated the importance of remnant magnetization in the case of the gels with large magnetic particles. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles; strontium hexaferrite; magnetite; ferrofluids; polyacrylamide gel; ferrogel; tissue engineering; magnetic biosensors; giant magnetoimpedance magnetic nanoparticles; strontium hexaferrite; magnetite; ferrofluids; polyacrylamide gel; ferrogel; tissue engineering; magnetic biosensors; giant magnetoimpedance
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Safronov, A.P.; Mikhnevich, E.A.; Lotfollahi, Z.; Blyakhman, F.A.; Sklyar, T.F.; Larrañaga Varga, A.; Medvedev, A.I.; Fernández Armas, S.; Kurlyandskaya, G.V. Polyacrylamide Ferrogels with Magnetite or Strontium Hexaferrite: Next Step in the Development of Soft Biomimetic Matter for Biosensor Applications. Sensors 2018, 18, 257.

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