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Sensors 2018, 18(1), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010178

Accurate Natural Trail Detection Using a Combination of a Deep Neural Network and Dynamic Programming

1
Division of Electronics Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 567-54896, Korea
2
Institute of Applied Computer Science, Lodz University of Technology, Stefanowskiego 18/22, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
3
Intelligent Robot Research Center of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 567-54896, Korea
Both authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2018 / Published: 10 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

This paper presents a vision sensor-based solution to the challenging problem of detecting and following trails in highly unstructured natural environments like forests, rural areas and mountains, using a combination of a deep neural network and dynamic programming. The deep neural network (DNN) concept has recently emerged as a very effective tool for processing vision sensor signals. A patch-based DNN is trained with supervised data to classify fixed-size image patches into “trail” and “non-trail” categories, and reshaped to a fully convolutional architecture to produce trail segmentation map for arbitrary-sized input images. As trail and non-trail patches do not exhibit clearly defined shapes or forms, the patch-based classifier is prone to misclassification, and produces sub-optimal trail segmentation maps. Dynamic programming is introduced to find an optimal trail on the sub-optimal DNN output map. Experimental results showing accurate trail detection for real-world trail datasets captured with a head mounted vision system are presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: deep neural networks; trail segmentation; trail following; dynamic programming deep neural networks; trail segmentation; trail following; dynamic programming
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Adhikari, S.P.; Yang, C.; Slot, K.; Kim, H. Accurate Natural Trail Detection Using a Combination of a Deep Neural Network and Dynamic Programming. Sensors 2018, 18, 178.

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