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Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2115; doi:10.3390/s17092115

Time-Resolved Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging Using Solid-State Detectors: Characteristics, Present Status, and Research Challenges

1
School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada
2
National Nanotechnology Center, King Abdul Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia
3
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4L8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Canada 2017)
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Abstract

Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and diffuse optical imaging (DOI) are emerging non-invasive imaging modalities that have wide spread potential applications in many fields, particularly for structural and functional imaging in medicine. In this article, we review time-resolved diffuse optical imaging (TR-DOI) systems using solid-state detectors with a special focus on Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) and Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). These TR-DOI systems can be categorized into two types based on the operation mode of the detector (free-running or time-gated). For the TR-DOI prototypes, the physical concepts, main components, figures-of-merit of detectors, and evaluation parameters are described. The performance of TR-DOI prototypes is evaluated according to the parameters used in common protocols to test DOI systems particularly basic instrumental performance (BIP). In addition, the potential features of SPADs and SiPMs to improve TR-DOI systems and expand their applications in the foreseeable future are discussed. Lastly, research challenges and future developments for TR-DOI are discussed for each component in the prototype separately and also for the entire system. View Full-Text
Keywords: diffuse optical imaging; diffuse optical spectroscopy; functional near-infrared spectroscopy; silicon photomultipliers; single-photon avalanche diode; time-correlated single-photon counting; time of flight; time-resolved spectroscopy diffuse optical imaging; diffuse optical spectroscopy; functional near-infrared spectroscopy; silicon photomultipliers; single-photon avalanche diode; time-correlated single-photon counting; time of flight; time-resolved spectroscopy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Alayed, M.; Deen, M.J. Time-Resolved Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy and Imaging Using Solid-State Detectors: Characteristics, Present Status, and Research Challenges. Sensors 2017, 17, 2115.

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