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Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2090; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092090

A 24-GHz Front-End Integrated on a Multilayer Cellulose-Based Substrate for Doppler Radar Sensors

1
Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, 06125 Perugia, Italy
2
Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstrasse 2, 9500 Villach, Austria
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in Alimenti F.; Palazzi, V.; Mariotti, C.; Virili, M.; Orecchini, G. ; Roselli, L.; Mezzanotte, P. 24-GHz CW radar front-ends on cellulose-based substrates: A new technology for low-cost applications. In Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium, Phoenix, AZ, USA, 17–22 May 2015.
Current address: Qorvo Munich GmbH, Konrad-Zuse-Platz 1, 81829 Munich, Germany.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 29 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation Sensors Enabling and Fostering IoT)
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Abstract

This paper presents a miniaturized Doppler radar that can be used as a motion sensor for low-cost Internet of things (IoT) applications. For the first time, a radar front-end and its antenna are integrated on a multilayer cellulose-based substrate, built-up by alternating paper, glue and metal layers. The circuit exploits a distributed microstrip structure that is realized using a copper adhesive laminate, so as to obtain a low-loss conductor. The radar operates at 24 GHz and transmits 5 mW of power. The antenna has a gain of 7.4 dBi and features a half power beam-width of 48 degrees. The sensor, that is just the size of a stamp, is able to detect the movement of a walking person up to 10 m in distance, while a minimum speed of 50 mm/s up to 3 m is clearly measured. Beyond this specific result, the present paper demonstrates that the attractive features of cellulose, including ultra-low cost and eco-friendliness (i.e., recyclability and biodegradability), can even be exploited for the realization of future high-frequency hardware. This opens opens the door to the implementation on cellulose of devices and systems which make up the “sensing layer” at the base of the IoT ecosystem. View Full-Text
Keywords: Doppler radar sensors; green electronics; all-natural electronic; circuits on cellulose; paper-based substrates; flexible substrates; substrate integrated circuits; Internet of things (IoT) Doppler radar sensors; green electronics; all-natural electronic; circuits on cellulose; paper-based substrates; flexible substrates; substrate integrated circuits; Internet of things (IoT)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Alimenti, F.; Palazzi, V.; Mariotti, C.; Virili, M.; Orecchini, G.; Bonafoni, S.; Roselli, L.; Mezzanotte, P. A 24-GHz Front-End Integrated on a Multilayer Cellulose-Based Substrate for Doppler Radar Sensors. Sensors 2017, 17, 2090.

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