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Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2066; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092066

Self-Calibrated In-Process Photogrammetry for Large Raw Part Measurement and Alignment before Machining

1
IK4-Ideko, 20870 Basque Country, Spain
2
I3A, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 September 2017 / Published: 9 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
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Abstract

Photogrammetry methods are being used more and more as a 3D technique for large scale metrology applications in industry. Optical targets are placed on an object and images are taken around it, where measuring traceability is provided by precise off-process pre-calibrated digital cameras and scale bars. According to the 2D target image coordinates, target 3D coordinates and camera views are jointly computed. One of the applications of photogrammetry is the measurement of raw part surfaces prior to its machining. For this application, post-process bundle adjustment has usually been adopted for computing the 3D scene. With that approach, a high computation time is observed, leading in practice to time consuming and user dependent iterative review and re-processing procedures until an adequate set of images is taken, limiting its potential for fast, easy-to-use, and precise measurements. In this paper, a new efficient procedure is presented for solving the bundle adjustment problem in portable photogrammetry. In-process bundle computing capability is demonstrated on a consumer grade desktop PC, enabling quasi real time 2D image and 3D scene computing. Additionally, a method for the self-calibration of camera and lens distortion has been integrated into the in-process approach due to its potential for highest precision when using low cost non-specialized digital cameras. Measurement traceability is set only by scale bars available in the measuring scene, avoiding the uncertainty contribution of off-process camera calibration procedures or the use of special purpose calibration artifacts. The developed self-calibrated in-process photogrammetry has been evaluated both in a pilot case scenario and in industrial scenarios for raw part measurement, showing a total in-process computing time typically below 1 s per image up to a maximum of 2 s during the last stages of the computed industrial scenes, along with a relative precision of 1/10,000 (e.g. 0.1 mm error in 1 m) with an error RMS below 0.2 pixels at image plane, ranging at the same performance reported for portable photogrammetry with precise off-process pre-calibrated cameras. View Full-Text
Keywords: image; machine tool; photogrammetry; calibration image; machine tool; photogrammetry; calibration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Mendikute, A.; Yagüe-Fabra, J.A.; Zatarain, M.; Bertelsen, Á.; Leizea, I. Self-Calibrated In-Process Photogrammetry for Large Raw Part Measurement and Alignment before Machining. Sensors 2017, 17, 2066.

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