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Sensors 2017, 17(8), 1853; doi:10.3390/s17081853

The Ultrasonic Directional Tidal Breathing Pattern Sensor: Equitable Design Realization Based on Phase Information

TCS Research and Innovation, Kolkata 700156, India
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Received: 29 May 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acoustic Sensing and Ultrasonic Drug Delivery)
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Abstract

Pulmonary ailments are conventionally diagnosed by spirometry. The complex forceful breathing maneuver as well as the extreme cost of spirometry renders it unsuitable in many situations. This work is aimed to facilitate an emerging direction of tidal breathing-based pulmonary evaluation by designing a novel, equitable, precise and portable device for acquisition and analysis of directional tidal breathing patterns, in real time. The proposed system primarily uses an in-house designed blow pipe, 40-kHz air-coupled ultrasound transreceivers, and a radio frequency (RF) phase-gain integrated circuit (IC). Moreover, in order to achieve high sensitivity in a cost-effective design philosophy, we have exploited the phase measurement technique, instead of selecting the contemporary time-of-flight (TOF) measurement; since application of the TOF principle in tidal breathing assessments requires sub-micro to nanosecond time resolution. This approach, which depends on accurate phase measurement, contributed to enhanced sensitivity using a simple electronics design. The developed system has been calibrated using a standard 3-L calibration syringe. The parameters of this system are validated against a standard spirometer, with maximum percentage error below 16%. Further, the extracted respiratory parameters related to tidal breathing have been found to be comparable with relevant prior works. The error in detecting respiration rate only is 3.9% compared to manual evaluation. These encouraging insights reveal the definite potential of our tidal breathing pattern (TBP) prototype for measuring tidal breathing parameters in order to extend the reach of affordable healthcare in rural regions and developing areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrasonic phase detection; tidal breathing; 3D printed blow pipe; AD8302; pulmonary assessment ultrasonic phase detection; tidal breathing; 3D printed blow pipe; AD8302; pulmonary assessment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sinharay, A.; Rakshit, R.; Khasnobish, A.; Chakravarty, T.; Ghosh, D.; Pal, A. The Ultrasonic Directional Tidal Breathing Pattern Sensor: Equitable Design Realization Based on Phase Information. Sensors 2017, 17, 1853.

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