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Sensors 2017, 17(7), 1615; doi:10.3390/s17071615

Radio-Frequency-Based NH3-Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Control: Studies on Temperature Dependency and Humidity Influences

1
Bayreuth Engine Research Center (BERC), Department of Functional Materials, University of Bayreuth, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany
2
Continental Automotive GmbH, Division Powertrain, Siemensstraße 12, 93055 Regensburg, Germany
3
Ford Research and Innovation Center, 2101 Village Rd., Dearborn, MI 48124, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 12 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical Sensors)
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Abstract

The upcoming more stringent automotive emission legislations and current developments have promoted new technologies for more precise and reliable catalyst control. For this purpose, radio-frequency-based (RF) catalyst state determination offers the only approach for directly measuring the NH3 loading on selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts and the state of other catalysts and filter systems. Recently, the ability of this technique to directly control the urea dosing on a current NH3 storing zeolite catalyst has been demonstrated on an engine dynamometer for the first time and this paper continues that work. Therefore, a well-known serial-type and zeolite-based SCR catalyst (Cu-SSZ-13) was investigated under deliberately chosen high space velocities. At first, the full functionality of the RF system with Cu-SSZ-13 as sample was tested successfully. By direct RF-based NH3 storage control, the influence of the storage degree on the catalyst performance, i.e., on NOx conversion and NH3 slip, was investigated in a temperature range between 250 and 400 °C. For each operation point, an ideal and a critical NH3 storage degree was found and analyzed in the whole temperature range. Based on the data of all experimental runs, temperature dependent calibration functions were developed as a basis for upcoming tests under transient conditions. Additionally, the influence of exhaust humidity was observed with special focus on cold start water and its effects to the RF signals. View Full-Text
Keywords: radio-frequency (RF); NH3 SCR; NH3 storage; direct control; microwave cavity perturbation; exhaust gas sensor; cold start radio-frequency (RF); NH3 SCR; NH3 storage; direct control; microwave cavity perturbation; exhaust gas sensor; cold start
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dietrich, M.; Hagen, G.; Reitmeier, W.; Burger, K.; Hien, M.; Grass, P.; Kubinski, D.; Visser, J.; Moos, R. Radio-Frequency-Based NH3-Selective Catalytic Reduction Catalyst Control: Studies on Temperature Dependency and Humidity Influences. Sensors 2017, 17, 1615.

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