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Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1388; doi:10.3390/s17061388

A Novel Sensor Based on a Single-Pixel Microwave Radiometer for Warm Object Counting: Concept Validation and IoT Perspectives

Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Generation Sensors Enabling and Fostering IoT)
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Controlled measurements by a low-cost single-pixel microwave radiometer operating at 12.65 GHz were carried out to assess the detection and counting capability for targets warmer than the surroundings. The adopted reference test targets were pre-warmed water and oil; and a hand, both naked and wearing a glove. The results showed the reliability of microwave radiometry for counting operations under controlled conditions, and its effectiveness at detecting even warm targets masked by unheated dielectric layers. An electromagnetic model describing the scenario sensed by the radiometer antenna is proposed, and comparison with the experimental observations shows a good agreement. The measurements prove that reliable counting is enabled by an antenna temperature increment, for each target sample added, of around 1 K. Starting from this value, an analysis of the antenna filling factor was performed to provide an instrument useful for evaluating real applicability in many practical situations. This study also allows the direct people counting problem to be addressed, providing preliminary operational indications, reference numbers and experimental validation. View Full-Text
Keywords: microwave radiometer; antenna temperature; filling factor; warm target counting microwave radiometer; antenna temperature; filling factor; warm target counting

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Alimenti, F.; Bonafoni, S.; Roselli, L. A Novel Sensor Based on a Single-Pixel Microwave Radiometer for Warm Object Counting: Concept Validation and IoT Perspectives. Sensors 2017, 17, 1388.

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