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Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1387; doi:10.3390/s17061387

An LMS Programming Scheme and Floating-Gate Technology Enabled Trimmer-Less and Low Voltage Flame Detection Sensor

1
Department of Communications and Electronics, National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City 07738, Mexico
2
Department of Electrical Engineering, Center for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute, Mexico City 07360, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 4 May 2017 / Revised: 5 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 14 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3488 KB, uploaded 15 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

In this paper, a Least Mean Square (LMS) programming scheme is used to set the offset voltage of two operational amplifiers that were built using floating-gate transistors, enabling a 0.95 VRMS trimmer-less flame detection sensor. The programming scheme is capable of setting the offset voltage over a wide range of values by means of electron injection. The flame detection sensor consists of two programmable offset operational amplifiers; the first amplifier serves as a 26 μV offset voltage follower, whereas the second amplifier acts as a programmable trimmer-less voltage comparator. Both amplifiers form the proposed sensor, whose principle of functionality is based on the detection of the electrical changes produced by the flame ionization. The experimental results show that it is possible to measure the presence of a flame accurately after programming the amplifiers with a maximum of 35 LMS-algorithm iterations. Current commercial flame detectors are mainly used in absorption refrigerators and large industrial gas heaters, where a high voltage AC source and several mechanical trimmings are used in order to accurately measure the presence of the flame. View Full-Text
Keywords: flame detector sensor; CMOS analog integrated circuits; field programmable gate arrays; operational amplifiers; LMS; industrial heaters flame detector sensor; CMOS analog integrated circuits; field programmable gate arrays; operational amplifiers; LMS; industrial heaters
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Iglesias-Rojas, J.C.; Gomez-Castañeda, F.; Moreno-Cadenas, J.A. An LMS Programming Scheme and Floating-Gate Technology Enabled Trimmer-Less and Low Voltage Flame Detection Sensor. Sensors 2017, 17, 1387.

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