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Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1313; doi:10.3390/s17061313

Spatial Characterization of Radio Propagation Channel in Urban Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Environments to Support WSNs Deployment

1
Electrical and Electronic Engineering Dept., Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, Sangolquí 171-5-231B, Ecuador
2
School of Engineering and Sciences, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey 64849, Mexico
3
Electrical and Electronic Engineering Dept, Public University of Navarre, Pamplona 31006, Spain
4
Mathematical Engineering and Computer Science Department, Public University of Navarre, Pamplona 31006, Spain
5
Institute of Smart Cities, Public University of Navarre, Pamplona 31006, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stefano Mariani
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 3 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 June 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
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Abstract

Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) enable vehicles to communicate with each other as well as with roadside units (RSUs). Although there is a significant research effort in radio channel modeling focused on vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), not much work has been done for vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) using 3D ray-tracing tools. This work evaluates some important parameters of a V2I wireless channel link such as large-scale path loss and multipath metrics in a typical urban scenario using a deterministic simulation model based on an in-house 3D Ray-Launching (3D-RL) algorithm at 5.9 GHz. Results show the high impact that the spatial distance; link frequency; placement of RSUs; and factors such as roundabout, geometry and relative position of the obstacles have in V2I propagation channel. A detailed spatial path loss characterization of the V2I channel along the streets and avenues is presented. The 3D-RL results show high accuracy when compared with measurements, and represent more reliably the propagation phenomena when compared with analytical path loss models. Performance metrics for a real test scenario implemented with a VANET wireless sensor network implemented ad-hoc are also described. These results constitute a starting point in the design phase of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) radio-planning in the urban V2I deployment in terms of coverage. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor networks (WSN); 3D ray launching; Vehicular ad-hoc Networks (VANET); vehicle-to-Infrastructure communication (V2I); path loss; coherence bandwidth wireless sensor networks (WSN); 3D ray launching; Vehicular ad-hoc Networks (VANET); vehicle-to-Infrastructure communication (V2I); path loss; coherence bandwidth
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Granda, F.; Azpilicueta, L.; Vargas-Rosales, C.; Lopez-Iturri, P.; Aguirre, E.; Astrain, J.J.; Villandangos, J.; Falcone, F. Spatial Characterization of Radio Propagation Channel in Urban Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Environments to Support WSNs Deployment. Sensors 2017, 17, 1313.

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