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Sensors 2017, 17(6), 1299; doi:10.3390/s17061299

Study on an Indoor Positioning System for Harsh Environments Based on Wi-Fi and Bluetooth Low Energy

1
Instituto Universitario de Ciencias y Tecnologías Cibernéticas, ULPGC, 35001 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain
2
Department of Computer Engineering and Systems, University of La Laguna, 38200 San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonhard M. Reindl
Received: 29 April 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 3 June 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from UCAmI 2016)

Abstract

This paper presents a study of positioning system that provides advanced information services based on Wi-Fi and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) technologies. It uses Wi-Fi for rough positioning and BLE for fine positioning. It is designed for use in public transportation system stations and terminals where the conditions are “hostile” or unfavourable due to signal noise produced by the continuous movement of passengers and buses, data collection conducted in the constant presence thereof, multipath fading, non-line of sight (NLOS) conditions, the fact that part of the wireless communication infrastructure has already been deployed and positioned in a way that may not be optimal for positioning purposes, variable humidity conditions, etc. The ultimate goal is to provide a service that may be used to assist people with special needs. We present experimental results based on scene analysis; the main distance metric used was the Euclidean distance but the Mahalanobis distance was also used in one case. The algorithm employed to compare fingerprints was the weighted k-nearest neighbor one. For Wi-Fi, with only three visible access points, accuracy ranged from 3.94 to 4.82 m, and precision from 5.21 to 7.0 m 90% of the time. With respect to BLE, with a low beacon density (1 beacon per 45.7 m2), accuracy ranged from 1.47 to 2.15 m, and precision from 1.81 to 3.58 m 90% of the time. Taking into account the fact that this system is designed to work in real situations in a scenario with high environmental fluctuations, and comparing the results with others obtained in laboratory scenarios, our results are promising and demonstrate that the system would be able to position users with these reasonable values of accuracy and precision. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor positioning system; ubiquitous computing; intelligent transport system; WLAN; BLE indoor positioning system; ubiquitous computing; intelligent transport system; WLAN; BLE
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

de Blasio, G.; Quesada-Arencibia, A.; García, C.R.; Molina-Gil, J.M.; Caballero-Gil, C. Study on an Indoor Positioning System for Harsh Environments Based on Wi-Fi and Bluetooth Low Energy. Sensors 2017, 17, 1299.

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