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Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1060; doi:10.3390/s17051060

A Novel Real-Time Reference Key Frame Scan Matching Method

Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Port-Said University, Port-Said 42526, Egypt
Public Works Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jesús Ureña, Álvaro Hernández Alonso and Juan Jesús García Domínguez
Received: 18 March 2017 / Revised: 23 April 2017 / Accepted: 3 May 2017 / Published: 7 May 2017


Unmanned aerial vehicles represent an effective technology for indoor search and rescue operations. Typically, most indoor missions’ environments would be unknown, unstructured, and/or dynamic. Navigation of UAVs in such environments is addressed by simultaneous localization and mapping approach using either local or global approaches. Both approaches suffer from accumulated errors and high processing time due to the iterative nature of the scan matching method. Moreover, point-to-point scan matching is prone to outlier association processes. This paper proposes a low-cost novel method for 2D real-time scan matching based on a reference key frame (RKF). RKF is a hybrid scan matching technique comprised of feature-to-feature and point-to-point approaches. This algorithm aims at mitigating errors accumulation using the key frame technique, which is inspired from video streaming broadcast process. The algorithm depends on the iterative closest point algorithm during the lack of linear features which is typically exhibited in unstructured environments. The algorithm switches back to the RKF once linear features are detected. To validate and evaluate the algorithm, the mapping performance and time consumption are compared with various algorithms in static and dynamic environments. The performance of the algorithm exhibits promising navigational, mapping results and very short computational time, that indicates the potential use of the new algorithm with real-time systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: scan matching; SLAM; laser range finder; point registration; least squares; line tracking; PCA; ICP; UAV; key frame scan matching; SLAM; laser range finder; point registration; least squares; line tracking; PCA; ICP; UAV; key frame

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Mohamed, H.; Moussa, A.; Elhabiby, M.; El-Sheimy, N.; Sesay, A. A Novel Real-Time Reference Key Frame Scan Matching Method. Sensors 2017, 17, 1060.

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