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Sensors 2017, 17(5), 1027; doi:10.3390/s17051027

Multiple Two-Way Time Message Exchange (TTME) Time Synchronization for Bridge Monitoring Wireless Sensor Networks

1
Robot Technology Used for Special Environment Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, China
2
College of Chemistry and Environment, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000, China
3
Advanced Robotics and Intelligent Systems (ARIS) Laboratory, School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
4
State Key Laboratory of Geohazard Prevention and Geoenvironment Protection, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vittorio M. N. Passaro
Received: 5 March 2017 / Revised: 19 April 2017 / Accepted: 27 April 2017 / Published: 4 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors for Transportation)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3079 KB, uploaded 4 May 2017]   |  

Abstract

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely used to collect valuable information in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of bridges, using various sensors, such as temperature, vibration and strain sensors. Since multiple sensors are distributed on the bridge, accurate time synchronization is very important for multi-sensor data fusion and information processing. Based on shape of the bridge, a spanning tree is employed to build linear topology WSNs and achieve time synchronization in this paper. Two-way time message exchange (TTME) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) are employed for clock offset estimation. Multiple TTMEs are proposed to obtain a subset of TTME observations. The time out restriction and retry mechanism are employed to avoid the estimation errors that are caused by continuous clock offset and software latencies. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm could avoid the estimation errors caused by clock drift and minimize the estimation error due to the large random variable delay jitter. The proposed algorithm is an accurate and low complexity time synchronization algorithm for bridge health monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: wireless sensor networks; bridge monitoring; time synchronization; time message exchange; timeout constraint; maximum likelihood estimation wireless sensor networks; bridge monitoring; time synchronization; time message exchange; timeout constraint; maximum likelihood estimation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shi, F.; Tuo, X.; Yang, S.X.; Li, H.; Shi, R. Multiple Two-Way Time Message Exchange (TTME) Time Synchronization for Bridge Monitoring Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2017, 17, 1027.

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