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Sensors 2017, 17(4), 890; doi:10.3390/s17040890

A Phonocardiographic-Based Fiber-Optic Sensor and Adaptive Filtering System for Noninvasive Continuous Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring

1
Department of Cybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17 Listopadu 15, Ostrava 70833, Czech Republic
2
Department of Telecommunications, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, 17 Listopadu 15, Ostrava 70833, Czech Republic
3
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Masaryk University and University Hospital Brno, Jihlavska 20, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic
4
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas El Paso, 500 W University Ave, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 February 2017 / Revised: 28 March 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract

This paper focuses on the design, realization, and verification of a novel phonocardiographic- based fiber-optic sensor and adaptive signal processing system for noninvasive continuous fetal heart rate (fHR) monitoring. Our proposed system utilizes two Mach-Zehnder interferometeric sensors. Based on the analysis of real measurement data, we developed a simplified dynamic model for the generation and distribution of heart sounds throughout the human body. Building on this signal model, we then designed, implemented, and verified our adaptive signal processing system by implementing two stochastic gradient-based algorithms: the Least Mean Square Algorithm (LMS), and the Normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS) Algorithm. With this system we were able to extract the fHR information from high quality fetal phonocardiograms (fPCGs), filtered from abdominal maternal phonocardiograms (mPCGs) by performing fPCG signal peak detection. Common signal processing methods such as linear filtering, signal subtraction, and others could not be used for this purpose as fPCG and mPCG signals share overlapping frequency spectra. The performance of the adaptive system was evaluated by using both qualitative (gynecological studies) and quantitative measures such as: Signal-to-Noise Ratio—SNR, Root Mean Square Error—RMSE, Sensitivity—S+, and Positive Predictive Value—PPV. View Full-Text
Keywords: interferometer; fetal heart rate (fHR); maternal heart rate (mHR); EMI-free; adaptive system; Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm; Normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS) algorithm; fetal phonocardiography (fPCG); maternal heart sounds (mHS); fetal heart sounds (fHS) interferometer; fetal heart rate (fHR); maternal heart rate (mHR); EMI-free; adaptive system; Least Mean Squares (LMS) algorithm; Normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS) algorithm; fetal phonocardiography (fPCG); maternal heart sounds (mHS); fetal heart sounds (fHS)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Martinek, R.; Nedoma, J.; Fajkus, M.; Kahankova, R.; Konecny, J.; Janku, P.; Kepak, S.; Bilik, P.; Nazeran, H. A Phonocardiographic-Based Fiber-Optic Sensor and Adaptive Filtering System for Noninvasive Continuous Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring. Sensors 2017, 17, 890.

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