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Sensors 2017, 17(4), 684; doi:10.3390/s17040684

Rapid and Low-Cost CRP Measurement by Integrating a Paper-Based Microfluidic Immunoassay with Smartphone (CRP-Chip)

1
Institute of Applied Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China
2
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
3
Seven Oaks General Hospital, Winnipeg, MB R2V 3M3, Canada
4
Department of Biosystems Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
5
Department of Immunology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
6
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Stephane Evoy and Baris Fidan
Received: 7 February 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 26 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Canada 2017)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3584 KB, uploaded 26 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

Traditional diagnostic tests for chronic diseases are expensive and require a specialized laboratory, therefore limiting their use for point-of-care (PoC) testing. To address this gap, we developed a method for rapid and low-cost C-reactive protein (CRP) detection from blood by integrating a paper-based microfluidic immunoassay with a smartphone (CRP-Chip). We chose CRP for this initial development because it is a strong biomarker of prognosis in chronic heart and kidney disease. The microfluidic immunoassay is realized by lateral flow and gold nanoparticle-based colorimetric detection of the target protein. The test image signal is acquired and analyzed using a commercial smartphone with an attached microlens and a 3D-printed chip–phone interface. The CRP-Chip was validated for detecting CRP in blood samples from chronic kidney disease patients and healthy subjects. The linear detection range of the CRP-Chip is up to 2 μg/mL and the detection limit is 54 ng/mL. The CRP-Chip test result yields high reproducibility and is consistent with the standard ELISA kit. A single CRP-Chip can perform the test in triplicate on a single chip within 15 min for less than 50 US cents of material cost. This CRP-Chip with attractive features of low-cost, fast test speed, and integrated easy operation with smartphones has the potential to enable future clinical PoC chronic disease diagnosis and risk stratification by parallel measurements of a panel of protein biomarkers. View Full-Text
Keywords: C-reactive protein; protein biomarkers; chronic disease diagnosis; microfluidic device; smartphone; low-cost C-reactive protein; protein biomarkers; chronic disease diagnosis; microfluidic device; smartphone; low-cost
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dong, M.; Wu, J.; Ma, Z.; Peretz-Soroka, H.; Zhang, M.; Komenda, P.; Tangri, N.; Liu, Y.; Rigatto, C.; Lin, F. Rapid and Low-Cost CRP Measurement by Integrating a Paper-Based Microfluidic Immunoassay with Smartphone (CRP-Chip). Sensors 2017, 17, 684.

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