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Sensors 2017, 17(3), 429; doi:10.3390/s17030429

Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for the Oil Industry

School of Physics, Northwest University, No.229, Taibai Road, Xi’an 710069, China
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Academic Editors: Christophe Caucheteur and Tuan Guo
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Fiber Bragg Grating Sensing)

Abstract

With the oil and gas industry growing rapidly, increasing the yield and profit require advances in technology for cost-effective production in key areas of reservoir exploration and in oil-well production-management. In this paper we review our group’s research into fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and their applications in the oil industry, especially in the well-logging field. FBG sensors used for seismic exploration in the oil and gas industry need to be capable of measuring multiple physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acoustic waves in a hostile environment. This application requires that the FBG sensors display high sensitivity over the broad vibration frequency range of 5 Hz to 2.5 kHz, which contains the important geological information. We report the incorporation of mechanical transducers in the FBG sensors to enable enhance the sensors’ amplitude and frequency response. Whenever the FBG sensors are working within a well, they must withstand high temperatures and high pressures, up to 175 °C and 40 Mpa or more. We use femtosecond laser side-illumination to ensure that the FBGs themselves have the high temperature resistance up to 1100 °C. Using FBG sensors combined with suitable metal transducers, we have experimentally realized high- temperature and pressure measurements up to 400 °C and 100 Mpa. We introduce a novel technology of ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models using FBG sensors, which is superior to conventional seismic exploration methods. Compared with piezoelectric transducers, FBG ultrasonic sensors demonstrate superior sensitivity, more compact structure, improved spatial resolution, high stability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In the last section, we present a case study of a well-logging field to demonstrate the utility of FBG sensors in the oil and gas industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: oil and gas industry; fiber Bragg grating; seismic exploration; high temperature; high pressure; acoustic wave; well-logging field oil and gas industry; fiber Bragg grating; seismic exploration; high temperature; high pressure; acoustic wave; well-logging field
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Qiao, X.; Shao, Z.; Bao, W.; Rong, Q. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for the Oil Industry. Sensors 2017, 17, 429.

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