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Sensors 2017, 17(2), 347; doi:10.3390/s17020347

A Probability-Based Algorithm Using Image Sensors to Track the LED in a Vehicle Visible Light Communication System

School of Electronic Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul 06978, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paolo Bellavista
Received: 28 November 2016 / Revised: 26 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [749 KB, uploaded 14 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

This paper proposes a probability-based algorithm to track the LED in vehicle visible light communication systems using a camera. In this system, the transmitters are the vehicles’ front and rear LED lights. The receivers are high speed cameras that take a series of images of the LEDs. ThedataembeddedinthelightisextractedbyfirstdetectingthepositionoftheLEDsintheseimages. Traditionally, LEDs are detected according to pixel intensity. However, when the vehicle is moving, motion blur occurs in the LED images, making it difficult to detect the LEDs. Particularly at high speeds, some frames are blurred at a high degree, which makes it impossible to detect the LED as well as extract the information embedded in these frames. The proposed algorithm relies not only on the pixel intensity, but also on the optical flow of the LEDs and on statistical information obtained from previous frames. Based on this information, the conditional probability that a pixel belongs to a LED is calculated. Then, the position of LED is determined based on this probability. To verify the suitability of the proposed algorithm, simulations are conducted by considering the incidents that can happen in a real-world situation, including a change in the position of the LEDs at each frame, as well as motion blur due to the vehicle speed. View Full-Text
Keywords: visible light communication; vehicle; tracking; probability; light-emitting diode; camera visible light communication; vehicle; tracking; probability; light-emitting diode; camera
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Huynh, P.; Do, T.-H.; Yoo, M. A Probability-Based Algorithm Using Image Sensors to Track the LED in a Vehicle Visible Light Communication System. Sensors 2017, 17, 347.

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