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Sensors 2017, 17(2), 249; doi:10.3390/s17020249

Superframe Duration Allocation Schemes to Improve the Throughput of Cluster-Tree Wireless Sensor Networks

1
INEGI/INESC-TEC, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
2
Department of Computing, Federal University of Piauí, 64049-550 Teresina, Brazil
3
Department of Automation and Systems, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, Brazil
4
Department of Computing, Federal University of Santa Catarina, 88905-120 Araranguá, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Leonhard M. Reindl
Received: 16 September 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 27 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Sensor Networks)

Abstract

The use of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies is an attractive option to support wide-scale monitoring applications, such as the ones that can be found in precision agriculture, environmental monitoring and industrial automation. The IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee cluster-tree topology is a suitable topology to build wide-scale WSNs. Despite some of its known advantages, including timing synchronisation and duty-cycle operation, cluster-tree networks may suffer from severe network congestion problems due to the convergecast pattern of its communication traffic. Therefore, the careful adjustment of transmission opportunities (superframe durations) allocated to the cluster-heads is an important research issue. This paper proposes a set of proportional Superframe Duration Allocation (SDA) schemes, based on well-defined protocol and timing models, and on the message load imposed by child nodes (Load-SDA scheme), or by number of descendant nodes (Nodes-SDA scheme) of each cluster-head. The underlying reasoning is to adequately allocate transmission opportunities (superframe durations) and parametrize buffer sizes, in order to improve the network throughput and avoid typical problems, such as: network congestion, high end-to-end communication delays and discarded messages due to buffer overflows. Simulation assessments show how proposed allocation schemes may clearly improve the operation of wide-scale cluster-tree networks. View Full-Text
Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4; ZigBee; cluster-tree; wide-scale, allocation scheme; superframe duration; congestion; buffer overflow IEEE 802.15.4; ZigBee; cluster-tree; wide-scale, allocation scheme; superframe duration; congestion; buffer overflow
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Leão, E.; Montez, C.; Moraes, R.; Portugal, P.; Vasques, F. Superframe Duration Allocation Schemes to Improve the Throughput of Cluster-Tree Wireless Sensor Networks. Sensors 2017, 17, 249.

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