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Sensors 2017, 17(2), 205; doi:10.3390/s17020205

Volatile Organic Compounds Sensing Using Optical Fibre Long Period Grating with Mesoporous Nano-Scale Coating

1
Optics and Photonics Group, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK
2
Institute for Environmental Studies, Charles University in Prague, Benatska 2, Prague 2 CZ-128 01, Czech Republic
3
Centre for Engineering Photonics, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
4
Department of Engineering and Applied Design, University of Chichester Bognor Regis, West Sussex PO21 1HR, UK
5
Environmental Science and Technology Department, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Eduard Llobet and Stella Vallejos
Received: 24 November 2016 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 January 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gas Nanosensors)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4069 KB, uploaded 8 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

A long period grating (LPG) modified with a mesoporous film infused with a calixarene as a functional compound was employed for the detection of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their mixtures. The mesoporous film consisted of an inorganic part, SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs), along with an organic moiety of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) polycation PAH, which was finally infused with the functional compound, p-sulphanato calix[4]arene (CA[4]) or p-sulphanato calix[8]arene (CA[8]). The LPG sensor was designed to operate at the phase matching turning point to provide the highest sensitivity. The sensing mechanism is based on the measurement of the refractive index (RI) change induced by a complex of the VOCs with calixarene. The LPG, modified with a coating of 5 cycles of (SiO2 NPs/PAH) and infused with CA[4] or CA[8], was exposed to chloroform, benzene, toluene and acetone vapours. The British Standards test of the VOCs emissions from material (BS EN ISO 16000-9:2006) was used to test the LPG sensor performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: long period grating (LPG); volatile organic compounds (VOCs); phase matching turning point (PMTP); mesoporous film; layer-by-layer (LbL); p-sulphanato calix[8]arene (CA[8]); p-sulphanato calix[4]arene (CA[4]) long period grating (LPG); volatile organic compounds (VOCs); phase matching turning point (PMTP); mesoporous film; layer-by-layer (LbL); p-sulphanato calix[8]arene (CA[8]); p-sulphanato calix[4]arene (CA[4])
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hromadka, J.; Korposh, S.; Partridge, M.; James, S.W.; Davis, F.; Crump, D.; Tatam, R.P. Volatile Organic Compounds Sensing Using Optical Fibre Long Period Grating with Mesoporous Nano-Scale Coating. Sensors 2017, 17, 205.

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