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Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2905; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122905

Induction of Inflammation In Vivo by Electrocardiogram Sensor Operation Using Wireless Power Transmission

1
Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu 42601, Korea
2
Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, School of Engineering, Keimyung University, Daegu 42601, Korea
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University, Daegu 41931, Korea
4
Department of Medical Genetics, Hanvit Institution for Medical Genetics, Keimyung University, Daegu 42601, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 12 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Implantable Sensors 2018)
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Abstract

Prolonged monitoring by cardiac electrocardiogram (ECG) sensors is useful for patients with emergency heart conditions. However, implant monitoring systems are limited by lack of tissue biocompatibility. Here, we developed an implantable ECG sensor for real-time monitoring of ventricular fibrillation and evaluated its biocompatibility using an animal model. The implantable sensor comprised transplant sensors with two electrodes, a wireless power transmission system, and a monitoring system. The sensor was inserted into the subcutaneous tissue of the abdominal area and operated for 1 h/day for 5 days using a wireless power system. Importantly, the sensor was encapsulated by subcutaneous tissue and induced angiogenesis, inflammation, and phagocytosis. In addition, we observed that the levels of inflammation-related markers increased with wireless-powered transmission via the ECG sensor; in particular, levels of the Th-1 cytokine interleukin-12 were significantly increased. The results showed that induced tissue damage was associated with the use of wireless-powered sensors. We also investigated research strategies for the prevention of adverse effects caused by lack of tissue biocompatibility of a wireless-powered ECG monitoring system and provided information on the clinical applications of inflammatory reactions in implant treatment using the wireless-powered transmission system. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocompatibility; electrocardiogram; implantable sensor; wireless power biocompatibility; electrocardiogram; implantable sensor; wireless power
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Heo, J.-C.; Kim, B.; Kim, Y.-N.; Kim, D.-K.; Lee, J.-H. Induction of Inflammation In Vivo by Electrocardiogram Sensor Operation Using Wireless Power Transmission. Sensors 2017, 17, 2905.

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