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Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2804; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122804

Gas Leak Detection by Dilution of Atmospheric Oxygen

Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques IPM, Heidenhofstr. 8, D-79110 Freiburg, Germany
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Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 18 November 2017 / Accepted: 30 November 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Gas Sensors)
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Abstract

Gas leak detection is an important issue in infrastructure monitoring and industrial production. In this context, infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy is a major measurement method. It can be applied in an extractive or remote detection scheme. Tunable laser spectroscopy (TLS) instruments are able to detect CH4 leaks with column densities below 10 ppm·m from a distance of 30 m in less than a second. However, leak detection of non-IR absorbing gases such as N2 is not possible in this manner. Due to the fact that any leaking gas displaces or dilutes the surrounding background gas, an indirect detection is still possible. It is shown by sensitive TLS measurements of the ambient background concentration of O2 that N2 leaks can be localized with extractive and standoff methods for distances below 1 m. Minimum leak rates of 0.1 mbar·L/s were determined. Flow simulations confirm that the leakage gas typically effuses in a narrow jet. The sensitivity is mainly determined by ambient flow conditions. Compared to TLS detection of CH4 at 1651 nm, the indirect method using O2 at 761 nm is experimentally found to be less sensitive by a factor of 100. However, the well-established TLS of O2 may become a universal tool for rapid leakage screening of vessels that contain unknown or inexpensive gases, such as N2. View Full-Text
Keywords: gas sensor; leak detection; tunable laser spectroscopy; infrared absorption; oxygen; nitrogen; methane gas sensor; leak detection; tunable laser spectroscopy; infrared absorption; oxygen; nitrogen; methane
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Lambrecht, A.; Maier, E.; Pernau, H.-F.; Strahl, T.; Herbst, J. Gas Leak Detection by Dilution of Atmospheric Oxygen. Sensors 2017, 17, 2804.

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