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Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2788; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122788

PCA Based Stress Monitoring of Cylindrical Specimens Using PZTs and Guided Waves

1
Schools of Mechanical and Electric, Electronics and Telecommunications Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander (UIS), Cra 27 Calle 9, 680002 Bucaramanga, Colombia
2
Departament de Matemàtiques, CoDAlab, Escola d’Enginyeria de Barcelona Est (EEBE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Campus Diagonal-Besòs. C, Eduard Maristany, 6-12, St. Adrià de Besòs, 08930 Barcelona, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 19 November 2017 / Accepted: 28 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Micro- and Nano-Devices)
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Abstract

Since mechanical stress in structures affects issues such as strength, expected operational life and dimensional stability, a continuous stress monitoring scheme is necessary for a complete integrity assessment. Consequently, this paper proposes a stress monitoring scheme for cylindrical specimens, which are widely used in structures such as pipelines, wind turbines or bridges. The approach consists of tracking guided wave variations due to load changes, by comparing wave statistical patterns via Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Each load scenario is projected to the PCA space by means of a baseline model and represented using the Q-statistical indices. Experimental validation of the proposed methodology is conducted on two specimens: (i) a 12.7 mm ( 1 / 2 ) diameter, 0.4 m length, AISI 1020 steel rod, and (ii) a 25.4 mm ( 1 ) diameter, 6m length, schedule 40, A-106, hollow cylinder. Specimen 1 was subjected to axial loads, meanwhile specimen 2 to flexion. In both cases, simultaneous longitudinal and flexural guided waves were generated via piezoelectric devices (PZTs) in a pitch-catch configuration. Experimental results show the feasibility of the approach and its potential use as in-situ continuous stress monitoring application. View Full-Text
Keywords: acoustoelasticity; stress monitoring; guided waves; piezoelectrics; statistical analysis; cylindrical waveguide acoustoelasticity; stress monitoring; guided waves; piezoelectrics; statistical analysis; cylindrical waveguide
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Quiroga, J.; Mujica, L.; Villamizar, R.; Ruiz, M.; Camacho, J. PCA Based Stress Monitoring of Cylindrical Specimens Using PZTs and Guided Waves. Sensors 2017, 17, 2788.

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