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Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2605; doi:10.3390/s17112605

Water-Based Suspensions of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Electrostatic or Steric Stabilization by Chitosan: Fabrication, Characterization and Biocompatibility

1
Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica and BCMaterials, Universidad del País Vasco UPV-EHU, 48080 Bilbao, Spain
2
Institute of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg 620002, Russia
3
Laboratory of Immunology and Cell Biotechnology, I. Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad 23601, Russia
4
Institute of Electrophysics, Ural Division RAS, Ekaterinburg 620016, Russia
5
Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050, Russia
6
Advanced Research Facilities (SGIKER), Universidad del País Vasco UPV-EHU, 48080 Bilbao, Spain
7
Department of Experimental Physics, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 13 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Materials Based Biosensors)
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Abstract

Present day biomedical applications, including magnetic biosensing, demand better understanding of the interactions between living systems and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). In this work spherical MNPs of maghemite were obtained by a highly productive laser target evaporation technique. XRD analysis confirmed the inverse spinel structure of the MNPs (space group Fd-3m). The ensemble obeyed a lognormal size distribution with the median value 26.8 nm and dispersion 0.362. Stabilized water-based suspensions were fabricated using electrostatic or steric stabilization by the natural polymer chitosan. The encapsulation of the MNPs by chitosan makes them resistant to the unfavorable factors for colloidal stability typically present in physiological conditions such as pH and high ionic force. Controlled amounts of suspensions were used for in vitro experiments with human blood mononuclear leukocytes (HBMLs) in order to study their morphofunctional response. For sake of comparison the results obtained in the present study were analyzed together with our previous results of the study of similar suspensions with human mesenchymal stem cells. Suspensions with and without chitosan enhanced the secretion of cytokines by a 24-h culture of HBMLs compared to a control without MNPs. At a dose of 2.3, the MTD of chitosan promotes the stimulating effect of MNPs on cells. In the dose range of MNPs 10–1000 MTD, chitosan “inhibits” cellular secretory activity compared to MNPs without chitosan. Both suspensions did not caused cell death by necrosis, hence, the secretion of cytokines is due to the enhancement of the functional activity of HBMLs. Increased accumulation of MNP with chitosan in the cell fraction at 100 MTD for 24 h exposure, may be due to fixation of chitosan on the outer membrane of HBMLs. The discussed results can be used for an addressed design of cell delivery/removal incorporating multiple activities because of cell capability to avoid phagocytosis by immune cells. They are also promising for the field of biosensor development for the detection of magnetic labels. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnetic biosensors; iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles; chitosan; ferrofluids; human blood mononuclear leukocytes; morphofunctional response magnetic biosensors; iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles; chitosan; ferrofluids; human blood mononuclear leukocytes; morphofunctional response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kurlyandskaya, G.V.; Litvinova, L.S.; Safronov, A.P.; Schupletsova, V.V.; Tyukova, I.S.; Khaziakhmatova, O.G.; Slepchenko, G.B.; Yurova, K.A.; Cherempey, E.G.; Kulesh, N.A.; Andrade, R.; Beketov, I.V.; Khlusov, I.A. Water-Based Suspensions of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Electrostatic or Steric Stabilization by Chitosan: Fabrication, Characterization and Biocompatibility. Sensors 2017, 17, 2605.

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