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Sensors 2017, 17(11), 2464; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17112464

Electrochemical Detection of Plasma Immunoglobulin as a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease

1
School of Chemical Engineering and Advance Materials, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, UK
2
Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik Şeyh Edebali University, 11230 Bilecik, Turkey
3
Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
4
Institute of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 September 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 20 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Biosensors)
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Abstract

The clinical diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) represent a challenge to clinicians due to the variability of clinical symptomatology as well as the unavailability of reliable diagnostic tests. In this study, the development of a novel electrochemical assay and its potential to detect peripheral blood biomarkers to diagnose AD using plasma immunoglobulins is investigated. The immunosensor employs a gold electrode as the immobilizing substrate, albumin depleted plasma immunoglobulin as the biomarker, and polyclonal rabbit Anti-human immunoglobulin (against IgA, IgG, IgM) as the receptor for plasma conjugation. The assay showed good response, sensitivity and reproducibility in differentiating plasma immunoglobulin from AD and control subjects down to 10−9 dilutions of plasma immunoglobulin representing plasma content concentrations in the pg mL−1 range. The newly developed assay is highly sensitive, less time consuming, easy to handle, can be easily modified to detect other dementia-related biomarkers in blood samples, and can be easily integrated into portable devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; plasma immunoglobulin; polyclonal rabbit Anti-human immunoglobulin; direct immunosensor Alzheimer’s disease; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; plasma immunoglobulin; polyclonal rabbit Anti-human immunoglobulin; direct immunosensor
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Garyfallou, G.-Z.; Ketebu, O.; Şahin, S.; Mukaetova-Ladinska, E.B.; Catt, M.; Yu, E.H. Electrochemical Detection of Plasma Immunoglobulin as a Biomarker for Alzheimer’s Disease. Sensors 2017, 17, 2464.

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