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Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2432; doi:10.3390/s17102432

Towards Harmonious Coexistence in the Unlicensed Spectrum: Rational Cooperation of Operators

Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 04107, Korea
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 21 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Wireless Networks in 5G-inspired Applications)
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Abstract

5G New Radio (NR) operating in the unlicensed spectrum is accelerating the Fourth Industrial Revolution by supporting Internet of Things (IoT) networks or Industrial IoT deployments. Specifically, LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) is looking to achieve spectrum integration through coexistence with multi-radio access technology (RAT) systems in the same unlicensed bands with both licensed-assisted and stand-alone access. The listen-before-talk (LBT) mechanism is mainly considered to enable an LTE operator to protect other incumbent unlicensed systems. In this article, we investigate the behaviors of multiple LTE operators along with the deployment of WiFi networks in the unlicensed spectrum from both short- and long-term points of view. In countries without mandatory LBT requirements, we show that an LTE operator is susceptible to collusion with another LTE operator, thus exploiting scarce spectrum resources by deceiving other wireless networks into thinking that channels are always busy; hence, mandatory usage of LTE with LBT is highly recommended at national level to achieve harmonious coexistence in the unlicensed spectrum. We discuss several possible coexistence scenarios to resolve the operator’s dilemmaas well as to improve unlicensed spectrum efficiency among multi-RAT systems, which is viable in the near future. View Full-Text
Keywords: 5G New Radio (NR); long-term evolution (LTE); LTE-license assisted access (LTE-LAA); LTE in unlicensed spectrum (LTE-U); listen-before-talk (LBT); clear channel assessment (CCA); operator’s dilemma; game theory 5G New Radio (NR); long-term evolution (LTE); LTE-license assisted access (LTE-LAA); LTE in unlicensed spectrum (LTE-U); listen-before-talk (LBT); clear channel assessment (CCA); operator’s dilemma; game theory
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bae, S.; Kim, H. Towards Harmonious Coexistence in the Unlicensed Spectrum: Rational Cooperation of Operators. Sensors 2017, 17, 2432.

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