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Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2248; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102248

Testing of the 4SM Method in the Gulf of California Suggests Field Data Are not Needed to Derive Satellite Bathymetry

1
Posgrado en Ciencias Marinas y Costeras (CIMACO), Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, 23060 La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico
2
Retired, BP 2862 98703 Puanaauia, French Polynesia
3
AW Hydrographic, 35 Burge Meadow, Cotford St. Luke, Taunton Somerset TA4 1QN, UK
4
Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, , Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada 2917, Col. Playitas, C.P. 22860 Ensenada B.C., Mexico
5
Programa de Bioingeniería y Ciencias Ambientales, Departamento Académico de Ingeniería en Pesquerías, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, Unidad Pichilingue, 23060 La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 August 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 30 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Sensors)

Abstract

Satellite-derived bathymetry methods over coastal areas were developed to deliver basic and useful bathymetry information. However, the process is not straightforward, the main limitation being the need for field data. The Self-calibrated Spectral Supervised Shallow-water Modeler (4SM) method was tested to obtain coastal bathymetry without the use of any field data. Using Landsat-8 multispectral images from 2013 to 2016, a bathymetric time series was produced. Groundtruthed depths and an alternative method, Stumpf’s Band Ratio Algorithm, were used to verify the results. Retrieved (4SM) vs groundtruthed depths scored an average r2 (0.90), and a low error (RMSE = 1.47 m). 4SM also showed, over the whole time series, the same average accuracy of the control method (40%). Advantages, limitations and operability under complex atmosphere and water column conditions, and high and low-albedo bottom processing capabilities of 4SM are discussed. In conclusion, the findings suggest that 4SM is as accurate as the commonly used Stumpf’s method, the only difference being the independence of 4SM from previous field data, and the potential to deliver bottom spectral characteristics for further modeling. 4SM thus represents a significant advance in coastal remote sensing potential to obtain bathymetry and optical properties of the marine bottom. View Full-Text
Keywords: 4SM; satellite derived bathymetry; water depth; water column correction; remote sensing; Landsat; San Lorenzo Channel 4SM; satellite derived bathymetry; water depth; water column correction; remote sensing; Landsat; San Lorenzo Channel
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Favoretto, F.; Morel, Y.; Waddington, A.; Lopez-Calderon, J.; Cadena-Roa, M.; Blanco-Jarvio, A. Testing of the 4SM Method in the Gulf of California Suggests Field Data Are not Needed to Derive Satellite Bathymetry. Sensors 2017, 17, 2248.

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